- Sep 19, 2019
- Jan 14, 2020
the Black martin, despite the small size, flies quickly enough and differs in endurance. Adult individuals can gather speed about 120 km/h that exceeds the speed of flight of a swallow almost twice. But also it is not a limit yet: cases when certain individuals overcame distances even quicker are known, for example, in 1 hour 170 km flew by. Characteristics of a bird, her ability to move immediately in space affected appearance of a black martin. Eyes of a bird are reliably protected by small dense feathers which protect them in case of collision in air with various insects.
To understand how the bird looks, it is enough to remember appearance of swallows. Martins sometimes can be confused with them, however, as well as with pigeons. They have a body which reaches in length of 18 cm at wingspan of 40 cm. Average length of a wing of adult individuals is about 16-17 cm. The tail of a bird reminding a fork has length of 7-8 cm. Tail plumage, externally not remarkable, usually has a dark-brown color with a greenish outflow. Martins differ in short, but very powerful paws of light-brown color on which 4 fingers with sharp and tenacious claws are located. Body weight is insignificant – about 100 g
On a throat and a chin there is a round light spot, well distinguishable only at a short distance. Eyes of dark brown color, and a beak black and short with a wide oral section. On plumage of a male not to distinguish from a female. On it the description of a martin can be finished.
Birds have ability to make absolutely various actions in flight: to eat food, to drink, copulate and even to sleep. Martins can fly several years without stopping, rising by rather long distances and not falling by the earth. They differ in it from other birds. The birdie can live in the environment of dwelling up to 25 years, and even it is more.
Individuals who are considered as migratory birds are rather widespread not only in rural areas, but also the large cities. Generally they live in the territory of the European countries and also in Asia and Africa. At first they lived only where there were mountains covered with the dense woods. However gradually began to lodge near the places of residence of people. Also they try to live in close proximity to reservoirs.
Martins prefer zones of a temperate climate as late spring, in the summer and in the early fall there are various insects who make a basis of a food supply of birds. The autumn cold snap induces a black martin to leave temporarily the main place of the dwelling and to depart on a wintering to strange warm lands where he feels rather comfortably. The birdie endures cold weather in the southern part of Africa. However some individuals can not leave places of the dislocation. It is mainly about those who live in big cities. In case they feel comfortably, in particular, will be warmed with heat going from houses or shops, birds can remain on a wintering on habitual places.
Birds of this look are known for the ability to make loud sounds and to get off in small packs. In case adult individuals do not hatch out baby birds, they do not settle down on trees or other secluded places, and constantly fly. Flight of a martin is followed by very frequent movements of wings, it can glide a long time above the ground. In good weather small birdies like to organize peculiar competitions among themselves in air, disclosing vicinities shrill shouts. Martins are deprived of ability to go on the ground, they can only move on vertical surfaces, for example, to steep rocks.
Birds eat various insects, in search of which considerable distances can overcome. The martin bird lacks food when rainy days come. Then insects do not fly in air therefore birds should make considerable efforts for their search. This fact forces black feathery to fly for hundreds of kilometers to those places where there are serene days. Adult individuals can rise in air by height in 2-3 km, making various maneuvers during flight. In a pursuit of insects of a bird destroy a large number of wreckers among whom there are mosquitoes and the poplar moth putting damages to trees. In the people noticed that emergence of black feathery announces that in the next few days there has to be good weather.
High speed of flight of birds does not assume presence at them of any enemies in the nature. At the same time quite often martins are subject to influence of band pincers which can cause serious diseases. Before a bird, living in the territory of the states of Southern Europe, repeatedly became the victims of local population. At the end of 19 century in these countries citizens could ruin a nest of a martin for the reason that eggs and meat of baby birds were equated to delicacies. Now sick individuals sometimes fall prey of cats or birds of prey. Birds long do not live in city conditions because often perish as a result of collision with electric wires.
On nesting of a bird arrive by quite large packs mainly at the end of April or the beginning of May. During flight birds not only copulate, but accumulate materials for a construction of the nests. For this purpose birds collect feathers, down, the grass pieces soaring in air. With this process they are helped by salivary glands. The nest of a martin represents a roundish small and at the same time wide bowl. the Female lays 2-3 small eggs white color in the last decade of May. The male hatches them as she, and. Process continues within 3 weeks. Baby birds vyluplivatsya in a naked look, but then on their bodies the down of a gray shade intensively grows.
Tiny martins are in a nest until they are not 1.5 months old. During this period they need parental guardianship. In case adult individuals leave them unguarded for a long time, at baby birds temperature goes down, breath therefore they fall into the forced hibernation slows down. Parents bring them round by the strengthened feeding.
Kids eat the small pieces of a forage which are previously stuck together with the help of parental saliva. Per day they can eat several tens of thousands of insects. Independently baby birds begin to get food after gain weight and will go to the first flight. From this point parents cease to look after them. However if on the street there is rainy weather, the term of stay of baby birds in nests can drag on a little.
As well as adult, young individuals with the onset of cold weather leave familiar spots and direct to warm regions. But there, unlike the senior birds, they remain approximately for 3 years. During this period there is a puberty then they return home and bring forth own offspring. Birds have fine memory and are never mistaken when choosing a route. As a rule, they always fly on the same place where nested earlier.