- Jun 15, 2018
Strong, unpretentious, unreceptive to the majority of infections, the gray goose supplies owners with meat, fat, eggs, down. Even the absence on a rural farmstead of a reservoir so necessary for his primogenitor – to a wild gray goose will not interfere it with effective cultivation. The house representative of this look quite quietly does also without bathing in water.
the Vital strength of gray geese
Domestication of the wild ancestor of the European guinea goose happened, according to experts, about 3 thousand years ago in the most ancient states of the planet: Rome, Greece, Egypt, Babylon. Subsequently the cultivated birds were crossed to other types for receiving prolific hybrids. It is supposed that three species of the cultivated nowadays guinea gooses (large gray geese, white Chinese and black Canadian) have the general gray ancestor – Anser anser.
The description of appearance of his cultivated descendants confirms maintaining basic signs of a wild gray goose – birds powerful, hardy, with wingspan of 145-180 cm. The large gray goose kept the color of plumage typical for masking of wild types in canes and herbs, but sides, the lower part of a trunk and a stomach became white, and the "scaly" drawing of wings – indistinct.
the Body remained same large, a breast – wide and brawny. Strong wings remind of beauty and power of flight of this breed of geese. The big head with characteristic for plastinchatoklyuvy a thick red-orange beak and a pink strip on the end is based upon slightly extended neck. Legs of large gray breed are higher and stronger, than at wild relatives, "are equipped" with protective claws and membranes for swimming. Widely placed, they are capable to hold rather fat trunk.
The cultivated big goose is mobile, hardy, differs in indiscriminateness to food though he is much more fat than the wild predecessor. Adult individuals weigh 6-7.5 kg and belong to medium-weight type of geese. The highest results (up to 10 kg) are achieved at introduction to a diet of the concentrated forages. Wild gray geese lag behind on weight "land" relatives by 2-3 times.
Цель than cultivation
The purpose of cultivation of gray geese is receiving meat, fat, eggs, feathers and down. Meat at this look tasty and useful, contains vitamins A, With, In (all group, including rare B12), amino acids, minerals and minerals: selenium, zinc, manganese, iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium.
On color it dark, is similar to meat of chicken legs and hips, but more rigid. Geese actively move, sometimes leave from a farmstead on long distances therefore their muscles are penetrated by a set of blood vessels. From here both color, and rigidity of meat. But unlike hens and quails in goose meat there is a lot of fat (nearly 50%). The gray goose is fattened also for receiving a fat liver weighing 350-450 g
The fatty layer provides a bird with magnificent thermal insulation, preserves it against overcooling. If fat of chicken is considered a source of cancerogenic substances, then goose fat is more useful to the person since is a power source and thermal controls. The biggest congestion of fat is in a skin where glands producing lubricant for waterfowl plumage are concentrated. Caloric content of 100 g of meat of geese without skin is 160 kcal, and together with it – 400.
As a part of goose fat there are polynonsaturated fatty acids important for a metabolism, strengthening of immunity, healing of fabrics – triglycerides of olein and linoleic acids. Goose fat is applied in cosmetology and as medicine at cold, burns, a frostbite, skin diseases.
At the age of three months gray geese bring from 44 to 50 eggs. In comparison with other breeds they are larger, possess stronger cover and high biological value. Eggs are nutritious, kaloriyna (185 kcal / 100). They contain K, D, E, A vitamins and group B, micro and macrocells. It is considered that consumption of eggs of large gray geese well influences brain blood circulation and helps with treatment of atherosclerosis. The yolk contains lutein – the antioxidant which is slowing down aging processes.
Goose down unlike chicken very elastic, warm, easy that allows to use it for spinning, warming of clothes, production of bedding. The things made of down are capable to serve nearly 25 years, and it is possible to collect 2-3 times it in a year, without killing a bird. Receive 3-4 kg of pukho-pen-type mix for life of one goose individual.
Arrangement of the habitat
The large gray breed of geese has certain advantages over other bird species not only on quality and quantity of the final product. Separate characteristics of breed do it attractive to cultivation and on a private farmstead, and in farms. Among them:
- possibility of a free pasture;
- a possibility of contents without existence of a reservoir;
- lack of special requirements to the equipment of places of contents;
- high resistance to diseases;
- good indicators of reproduction;
- the accelerated growth of posterity;
- affection for the person.
the Grey goose is unpretentious in relation to food. in the Spring and in the summer to him is enough even poor fodder pastures. A day one individual eats up to 2 kg of a young grass. But for good nutrition it is possible to add to a diet (especially during cold seasons) green leaves of corn, a lucerne, bran, cake, various grains (oats, wheat, barley), beet, boiled potatoes, grated carrots, leek, a celery, salad, vitamins, small gravel and chalk.
For the winter for geese prepare birch, aspen or alder branches from which during the winter period gather leaves and add to a forage. It is possible to use also powder of dried seaweed as additive to the main food.
At the shelter a way of cultivation gray geese lose a possibility of an independent pasture that attracts additional expenses on their maintenance. But it allows to fatten quickly a bird, applying the high-calorie and balanced compound feed. Such technique is most often applied at industrial cultivation of these birds.
the Free pasture on meadows is favorable to a house farmstead and to the large-scale enterprises possessing besides reservoirs. It is only necessary to select pastures not marshy, but reservoirs – clean and without stagnation of water. If the pond is equipped in the territory of economy, then it is necessary to provide a safe entrance and an exit of a bird. Small domestic receptacles of water are quickly soiled therefore liquid in them needs to be changed weekly, previously having cleaned capacities.
The unpretentiousness of this large breed allows to use small rooms, old wooden and pise-walled sheds, open-air cages and other shelters for its cultivation, having created the system of protection against predators. And though geese are very steady against the changing environmental conditions, during summer heat they will not be prevented by a canopy from the scorching sun.
Productive cultivation and sagination of geese demands enough feeding troughs (feeders) and drinking bowls . They are evenly placed in shelters, open-air cages and outside. Tight drinking bowls have to be available to cleaning.
Gray large geese from wild ancestors got great health, firmness and vital force. But for prevention of infections it is necessary to maintain purity in the hen house. The most dangerous disease for natatorial is considered парвовирус. Successfully cope with it though death for a bird is possible too.
It is better to raise a floor above the ground, to lay it straw or to fill up with sawdust. For the winter usually prepare up to 40 kg of covering material on each adult goose. It is recommended to change a laying daily because there is a danger of a mold and fungus. Also drying of the shed and processing of a floor superphosphate are possible: 200 g on 1 m ². After this procedure airing and drying of the hen house are obligatory.
Gray large geese are distinguished by not only excellent health, but also high values of reproductive signs. Under optimal conditions of development decimestrial gooses can reach weight in 6 kg. In the first year of life of a female of geese deliver to owners of 25 eggs weighing 180-220 g, and in the next years their production will average 40-60 pieces
This breed – wonderful parents. the Female – an excellent brood hen, and if the owner of a bird created favorable conditions, then he will receive from goose family of 15 healthy kids. Favorable conditions are a good nutrition with additives of curdled milk, skim milk, cottage cheese and availability of drink. One more condition is isolation of a layer from other individuals who are hatching in order to avoid fights. As geese live in couples, during incubation and growth of young growth the gander carries out the same role of the defender of family as his wild ancestor and the relative.
For full execution of eggs the breed needs 12-14-hour light day and temperature in the hen house to 14 °C. As the female lays eggs in a day, for simultaneous incubation of posterity they are picked, considering that it is possible to store them no more than 10 days.
Geese gray in comparison with other inhabitants of the poultry yard have low coefficient of birth rate : 45-50%. It is caused by the large size of eggs, i.e. it is always less of them by quantity, than at other birds. Monogamy of geese also affects quantity of posterity. In development very young females ripen quicker than males who are not ready to fertilization. Also the age of individuals is important: 3-4-year-old birds are most prolific, and then this indicator promptly decreases.
Despite low fertility, a gray large goose – the most fast-growing bird. Cultivation of breed begins in March that by the beginning of heat the bird was ready to independent food on a pasture.
The born gooses are fed first with mix of cottage cheese and boiled eggs, gradually adding grain of corn or wheat, surely shredded and mixed with soy or sunflower meal. Mix of forages for kids is moistened not to irritate them a nose.
Feeding troughs for kids depend on their age:
- up to 14 days the size of 100 x 15 cm is offered with a depth of 7 cm:
- 15-28 days – 150 x 30 x 15 cm (one on 15-20 geese);
- more 4-week – 170 x 30 x 25.
The accelerated growth of gooses of large gray breed happens in the first 2 months. It will demand for set only 1 kg of weight nearly 9 kg of the humidified forage and 2.5 kg of shredded grain.
Depending on target orientation of cultivation the place of contents is defined. The young growth planned for production of meat is usually kept in shelters to reduce their mobility, and feed with compound feed and greens. Such way of contents will give the chance by the time of slaughter to receive weight to 4.5-5 kg. And still gray gooses are fattened for receiving a fat liver up to 500 g
A part of gooses leave for reproduction of pack because in the subsequent growth rate falls and fat accumulation increases.
Pride of selectors
Selectors and manufacturers are proud of these geese. Despite antiquity of origin of their wild ancestor, the breed of large gray geese arose only in the second half of the 20th century. For their creation on signs of a high yaytsenoskost and speed of set of live weight ganders of the Toulouse breed and a goose – romensky were selected. Further selection went in the received qualitative hybrid posterity.
With it selection work as this species of geese has the signs allowing to cross successfully it to other breeds is still conducted. Hybrids with the high yaytsenoskost which is not decreasing till fifth year of life of a bird are already removed there are views with more tasty and quality meat. But all new hybrids keep count of relationship from large gray, undemanding and resistant.
There is one more feature of these geese: affection for the person who feeds them. At the same time they are sensitive and do not forgive the harm done to them. But without the thorough reason a bird never and anybody does not attack.