the Hemotransfusion is a transfusion by a sick animal of either whole blood, or components, or proteinaceous medicines of plasma. It is quite serious procedure.
In 80% of cases blood transfusion to dogs is caused by anemia, and in 20% — hemorrhagic shock.
Blood transfusion time saves life to a dog and plays a crucial role in overcoming critical condition.
blood transfusion Purposes to dogs
Replacement. The erythrocytes received from the donor remain in blood of the recipient for 1 – 4 months, it increases oxygen level in fabrics.
Stimulation – impact on different systems and bodies of a dog.
Improvement of haemo dynamics. Improvement of work of a cardiovascular system, increase in minute volume of heart, etc.
Haemo static purpose. The homeostasis is stimulated, the moderate giperoagulyation is observed.
Indications for blood transfusion to dogs
the Revealed sharp bleeding on which instruction are pale mucous, low and frequent pulse, cold paws.
the Chronic blood losses and unstable haemo dynamics indicating nondelivery of oxygen in fabric in enough.
not restored anemia of various etiology.
the Hereditary or acquired koagulopatiya, thrombocytopenia, a leykopeniye, a gipoproteinemiya.
Material for blood transfusion to dogs
The easiest to receive material from whole fresh blood. Therefore it is widely applied in veterinary science.
preserve Erythrocytes, store cooled (temperature of 3 - 6 0 C) and apply within 30 days or until decolouration of erythrocytes.
is necessary for replenishment of a stock of erythrocytes (at chronic anemia) or at risk of an overload the additional volume of liquid. Also it is used at sharp blood loss (in combination with crystalloids).
Plasma is necessary for restoration of factors of folding, including unstable components. Material is stored at a temperature of-40 0 With during 1 year. Before transfusion it is heated to +30 – 37 0 With, and then as soon as possible entered into an organism of a dog.
Ways of introduction
As a rule, blood and its components are entered intravenously.
If cannot enter blood into a vein (abscesses, severe hypostases), intra bone infusion is used.
Risks and complications at blood transfusion to dogs
Sharp complications are connected with violation of acid-base composition of blood, errors in technology of transfusion, violation of haemo dynamics. The slowed-down complications can be connected with transfusion of the superheated, gemolizirovanny or infected blood: posttrasfuzionny (hemolytic) shock, tsitratny (anaphylactic) shock, infectious diseases.
Not immunological reactions (a sharp form) are shown as fever. The reason – reaction to honey antigen and an antibody, involving platelets, granulocytes or lymphocytes, or bacterial contamination of blood. Allergic reaction is sometimes observed (small tortoiseshells with an itch and rash). Vomiting, tachycardia, nervousness, cough, short wind or cyanosis speaks about the raised load of the blood circulatory system.
Other risk factors:
post-transfusion circulator overload
acute postgemotransfuzialny reactions
syndrome of polyorgan insufficiency, etc.
Can be surprised lungs, a liver, endocrine glands and other systems and bodies.
the Overload can lead
to sharp expansion and cardiac arrest.
Transfusion can cause immunomodulatory effect and increase risk of development of nozokomialny infections, intense damage of slight, autoimmune diseases.
the heaviest complication – anaphylactic shock. If even insignificant signs are shown, transfusion should be stopped as soon as possible.
Blood transfusion to dogs as treatment technique
This procedure began to gain the increasing weight in recent years. Its advantage repeatedly was confirmed within treatment of a number of hematologic diseases. Veterinarians could almost not attach significance to incompatibility of blood types at the recipient and the donor thanks to simplicity of a system of blood types at dogs and to the low maintenance of naturally arising isoantibodies.
One more problem connected with the choice of the donor – potential danger to catch an infectious disease.
Ethical aspect is connected with restrictions of amount of the taken-away blood at a dog without prejudice to health (up to 10 ml/kg). The next blood sampling is carried out not earlier than in 45 – 60 days.
Who can become a donor
Once can transfuse to a dog blood of any group. But if the subsequent transfusion is required, the blood type has to coincide. Rhesus factor-negative dogs can receive only a Rhesus factor - negative blood. Any blood can receive a Rhesus factor - positive dogs.
Sometimes is required urgent blood transfusion. In this case or use the "casual" donor (the healthy dog who appeared in clinic – for an inoculation, a hairstyle of claws, etc.) or the pet of one of doctors.
Animal has to be from 1.5 to 8 years, it has to be absolutely great.
B quiet, appeasable dogs.
the Body weight of a donor dog (muscle bulk) has to be more than 25 kg.
the Ideal blood type – DEA 1.1. negative.
If the donor – a bough, she has to be not giving birth.
the Donor should not have left the local region.
Monitoring of a condition of a dog at blood transfusion
Each 15 – 30 minutes during transfusion and in 1, 12, 24 hours after the procedure are estimated the following parameters:
Quality and intensity of pulse.
Character and intensity of breath.
Colour of urine and plasma.
Colour of mucous membranes, time of filling of capillaries.
Protrombinovy time also gematokrit are controlled to, right after end and 12 and 24 hours later after transfusion.
Blood types of dogs
Is opinion that at dogs of 7 blood types. It not absolutely so. List A-G is the systems of blood types rather only 1 of options of 1961 of "release". Since then still the set of attempts to order data was made, and in 1976 developed the nomenclature of DEA which is standard in the USA now. According to this nomenclature of a system of blood it is possible to designate as DEA 1.1, DEA 1.2, DEA 3, DEA 4, DEA 5, DEA 7 and DEA 8.
the DEA 1 System – the most clinically relevant. In this system 3 couples a gene protein and 4 possible phenotypes: DEA 1.1., 1.2, 1.3 and 0. Only 1 phenotype is inherent in one dog. But dogs have no antibodies to antigens of other group therefore the dog to whom never earlier blood was transfused can transfuse blood without compatibility on DEA 1.1, and transfusion will be effective. But if repeated transfusion is necessary, difficulties are possible.
At transfusion of DEA to 1 negative recipient (a phenotype 0) blood of the positive donor of DEA 1 (any phenotype except 0) the recipient's organism in 7 – 10 days is capable to develop antibodies to DEA 1 antigen which destroy any erythrocytes having this antigen on themselves. Further such recipient will demand only transfusions of DEA of 1-negative blood, otherwise donor erythrocytes instead of standard 3 weeks will live in the recipient's organism, at best, some hours, and even several minutes that brings to naught effect of transfusion, and can even aggravate a situation. At the same time the positive donor of DEA 1 can transfuse blood to DEA 1-negative, however on condition that this donor was never a recipient.
DEA 1 Antigen is presented by a number of options: DEA 1.1, DEA 1.2., DEA 1.3.
At immunization of DEA of a 1-negative dog DEA 1.1 blood. the antibodies developed by it instantly destroy erythrocytes with DEA 1.1. also cause the acute hemolytic reaction fraught with heavy complications. At the same time erythrocytes with DEA 1.2 and 1.3 will agglutinate these antibodies, but not to destroy (though for the patient it is bad too).
If to speak about the DEA 3 system, a dog can be either DEA 3-positive, or negative. Transfusion of poloitelny DEA 3 blood to an animal with the corresponding anti-group antibodies (acquired or) destroys erythrocytes of the donor and can cause acute transfusion reactions in the next 5 days.
the DEA 4 System also has phenotypes + and-. Without preliminary immunization DEA to DEA 4 has no 4-negative dogs of antibodies. Repeated transfusion of DEA to the 4-negative recipient even in the presence of antibodies to DEA 4 does not cause hemolytic reaction. However the hemolysis case at a dog to whom transfused incompatible blood several times in a row is known.
the DEA 5 System also is positive and negative. 10% of DEA of 5-negative animals possess antibodies to DEA 5. Blood transfusion to the sensibilized patient causes hemolytic reaction and death of erythrocytes of the donor within three days.
the DEA 6 System has 2 phenotypes, + and-. Normal there are no antibodies to this antigen. Blood transfusion to the sensibilized recipient leads to moderately expressed transfusion reaction and moderate decrease in life expectancy of donor erythrocytes.
the DEA 7 System has 3 phenotypes: negative, 0 and Tr. To Tr and 0 25% of DEA have antibodies - negative animals, but they have no expressed hemolytic effect. But at the subsequent sensitization others which are capable to spread out donor blood less than in 3 days are acquired.
the DEA 8 System is not studied by sense.
Krom of above-named, exist other systems which are not included in DEA as were open recently, and a number of the systems specific to certain breeds (for example, east dogs – a shibu-in, etc.)
Exist sets of instruments for diagnosis for determination of absence or availability of DEA 1.1. antigens, 1.2, 3, 4, 5 and 7, however they are quite expensive. As a rule, in reality, especially in towns, there are no ready donors, and the compatibility is defined "on glass". However it allows to exclude only a probability of immediate transfusion reaction as interaction of erythrocytes is monitored only before drying of a drop, i.e. several minutes.