Babezioz (piroplasmosis) of dogs — the natural and focal protozoan inoculable not contagious kroveparazitarny disease proceeding sharply or chronically, caused by the simplest parasite of Babesia (Piroplasma) canis and shown high temperature, an anemichnost and yellowness of mucous membranes and also a gemoglobinuriya, tachycardia, an intestines atoniya.
This disease is known since 1895 when G.P. Piana and V. Galli-Valerio reported that a disease known as "bilious fever" or "malignant jaundice of hunting dogs", it was caused kroveparazity to which they gave the name: Piroplasma bigeminum (canis option). Later this parasite was given the name Babesia canis.
In Russia the Babesia canis activator was for the first time found in 1909 by V.L. Yakimov in St. Petersburg in the dog brought from the North Caucasus and V.L. Lyubinetsky observing the activator in Kiev. In Belarus at dogs pointed N.I. Dylko (1977) to parasitizing of pyroplasmas (babeziya).
the Carrier of babeziya are ixodic pincers of the sort Dermacentor. Many researchers noted transovarialny transfer by pincers of the activator of a babezioz and if to consider that susceptible animals to infection of B. canis are also wild carnivorous families dog, then they, therefore, can serve also as natural tanks.
In the last two decades is noted sharp change of dynamics of resettlement of pincers. Really, if in the 1960-80th years attack cases иксодид on dogs were registered, with rare exception, in rural areas and suburbs (at the dacha, hunting, etc.), then in 2005-2013 the vast majority of cases of attack of pincers happens on the territory of the cities (in parks, squares, and even in the yards).
of the Condition and habitat of ixodic pincers in the city significantly differ from those in natural biotopes. Here it is possible to mark out the following features: the increased gas contamination of atmospheric air and the lowered oxygen concentration the expressed dissociation of habitats of pincers a considerable variety of local climatic conditions an insignificant specific variety of prokormitel (dogs, cats, sinantropny rodents) the frequent changes of the habitat connected with building and reconstruction of buildings the high density of people and transport, their active movement. The specified conditions, undoubtedly, influence emergence and maintenance of the centers of a zakleshchevannost within the city.
All territory of any modern city can be divided conditionally into an old, young part, and new buildings.
the Old town is a territory of building of more than 50-year. It is characterized by high degree of an urbanizirovannost considerable gas contamination and insignificant quantity of vegetation. As a rule, such zone is almost free from pincers. A major factor of their drift and movement are animals-prokormiteli, most often dogs. Within a zone ticks can live in parks, squares and the yards where there are bushes.
Young areas — after their building passed from 5 to 50 years. The sufficient formation of a landscape is characteristic of them, and the urbanization in these territories is lower, than in the first zone (in the last decades when building new areas more green plantings are projected at once). During formation of a landscape the zakleshchevannost centers manage to be formed. The zone can be divided into two subbands conditionally:
territories in which pincers were absent
territories in which there were pincers earlier.
In subbands where iksodida were absent, formation of the centers of a zakleshchevannost, as a rule, represents long process. Pincers are brought from the outside by animals-prokormitelyami. Then, getting on plants, the become impregnated females, lay eggs out of which larvae are brought. If they find for themselves prokormitel, then the new center of a zakleshchevannost is gradually formed.
of the Subband where earlier there were pincers, represent sites in young areas where construction was not conducted. It can be already existing parks, squares and forest belts which are decided to be kept. The zakleshchevannost centers in such subbands remain, and then pincers are settled on the neighboring territories.
owing to the specified reasons, a zakleshchevannost of young areas can be considerable.
of the New building are areas where now construction and up to 5 years — after it is conducted. Construction works strongly change now a natural landscape that most often leads of ticks to death. Therefore settling of this territory pincers happens gradually (along with formation of a new landscape) by a drift animals-prokormitelyami or at their natural migration from border zakleshchevanny areas. In general new buildings are characterized by lack of pincers or very low zakleshchevannost.