- Feb 5, 2019
adaptation of dogs to starch with neolytic revolution. Preliminary experiments allowed scientists to find additional copies of the gene helping with digestion of substance. Genetic copies arose in process of agriculture in the territory of the planet what researchers told in article published in the Royal Society Open Science magazine about.
of the Cause of genetic copies
According to the last data, dogs of the sort Canis lupus familiaris were cultivated by the person about 15 millennia ago. Later 5 thousand years (in the Neolithic era) human communities began to cease to hunt animals, to collect herbs and passed to agriculture.
So sharp changes in activity of the person were reflected also in a dog genome. To survive, they were forced to adapt to grain food (earlier the basis of their diet was made by meat).
Neolytic revolution affected adaptation of dogs to starch what the gene of Amy 2 B helping to digest this substance directly is responsible for . Earlier experiments showed that the genotype of canine friends of the person contains not less than 4 copies of this gene (existence of only two copies is characteristic of wolves).
Till some time the scientist did not manage to be found out why the gene was copied what period of their education. Researchers from the Swedish Uppsala University could clear a situation.
Course and results of a research
In a recent experiment the analysis of 88 remains of dogs was carried out. They were found by archeologists on several parking which are localized across all Eurasia:
- in the Russian Federation;
- in Turkmenistan;
- in the territory of Western Europe and in other regions.
The studied samples (bones and teeth) belonged to era of the late Neolithic (10−40 millennia ago) and to a bronze age. To draw analogies, remains compared to fossils of the canids, living in the territory of the planet during from 100 to 26 thousand years ago .
Results of the conducted research showed that later experimental samples contain two and more copies of a gene of Amy 2 B:
- 4 copies contained in remains from the Romanian, Estonian, Turkmen archaeological parking;
- 8 copies are revealed in the bones and teeth found in the territory of France, Switzerland;
- more than eight copies found in samples from the Southern Asia (there lived these dogs on Earth 5−7 thousand years ago).
It allowed to draw the scientist a logical conclusion that copying of a gene of Amy 2 B which is responsible for digestion and digestion of starch happened for the last several centuries.
Researchers assume that distribution of this genome was characteristic also of people of the Neolithic era, that is directly connected with active development of agriculture .