• Mar 1, 2017

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Modern rates are descendants of taksopodobny dogs with a long body and short legs which images for the first time meet on frescos of Ancient Egypt more than 4000 years ago. Such dogs can be seen both in Ancient Greek drawings and in the Assyrian sculpture. At excavation of the Roman Forum skeletons of taksopodobny dogs were found. There are all bases to consider that taksopodobny dogs, and, therefore, and dachshunds, came from the most ancient form of hunting dogs of hounds, to be exact from their intermediate form of the short-legged dog called by hunting marriage. Modern classification refers breed a dachshund to group of hounds of dogs.

With development of a civilization when to replace a spear and arrows more perfect means of hunting and the more so with the invention of firearms, also ways of hunting changed came. The dogs of the small sizes capable to get an animal not only on the Earth's surface, but also underground in holes were necessary for hunters. So process of search and creation of various breeds of norny dogs began. In England function of underground hunting was performed by the high-legged dogs of square shape called by norny terriers. In Germany hunters used, on the contrary, stocky, short-legged dogs with the extended trunk that allowed them to get freely even into very narrow holes. Germany is the homeland of a dachshund. The set of skeletons of dogs of prototypes of modern rates is found in the territory of Germany and belongs to the period of the Roman invasion (the 2nd century BC).

Origin and appearance of earth dogs began

in the territory of the southern Germany. "the beaver dog" who was used for hunting for a beaver, a badger, an otter, etc. is mentioned in the documents relating to the 7th century. It is probably possible to carry to ancestors of dachshunds and the dogs used in persecution of hares and foxes. Mentions of them belong to the second half of the 13th century. In the 15th century dogs who had some similarity to modern rates were for the first time described. Rapid distribution of breed belongs to the period of late feudalism (to the middle of the 16th century) when rapid growth of the cities began, and, therefore, and the new estate citizens, or burghers appeared. They also made popular norny hunting, and such dog as a dachshund, is convenient in contents and a nataska.

One of the first images of "earth dogs" belongs by then and occurs in the book by Jacqui du Folu "Hunting" (1561). They probably were also primogenitors of modern rates, but on an exterior strongly differed from those. Further development of breed happens over the 17th century. In hunting literature of that time names meet: "earth dog", "барсучья dog", "creeping dog", etc. At the end of the century also the main options of colors of dachshunds were put. It was noted that dogs of new breed differ in great hunting qualities and unusual intelligence. To the middle of the XVIII century the breed of dachshunds generally developed. The dachshund wins the increasing popularity, and more and more people are engaged in cultivation and improvement of breed.

Not only hunters, but also just fans of dogs are interested in dachshunds. I In the 19th century are created dogs with the extended wool cover long-haired and wire-haired. In the evolutionary relation the sleek-haired dachshund is considered the oldest. Assume that appearance of long-haired dachshunds is result of crossing of sleek-haired versions with spaniels, and wire-haired with dandies-daynmont-terriers and also Scottish Terriers and Yorkshire terriers. In a further porodoobrazovaniye of wire-haired dachshunds schnauzers, especially participated in the South German areas.

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B approved 1880 the first German genealogical book of hunting dogs. Then the uniform standard of breed was adopted. In 1888 in Berlin the first German tekel-club is created. The name a dachshund to conformably German word der Dachs that the badger means, and would be more correct to call a dachshund a dachshund or dakhsy. In northern Germany a dachshund called a word текель (Teckel), and in the southern German areas the name дакель was accepted (Dackel). The official name дахсхунд (Dachshund) in translation from German is meant "барсучья by a dog" and precisely points to purpose of breed.

At the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century the attempt of removal of kinds of dachshunds by the size becomes. In the 10th years of our century dwarfish and smallest rabbit rates are created. Emergence of different growth and weight options was caused by use of a dachshund in hunting practice. For example, holes of sandy soils are so small that ordinary dachshunds could not move to them at all. Therefore the smallest individuals were specially selected and used for further cultivation that led to emergence of dwarfish rates. At removal of the smallest kind of the rabbit rate used to expel from holes of wild rabbits dachshunds crossed to toy terriers and tiny pinschers.

the Peak of popularity of a dachshund fell on the beginning of the XX century when general hobby for this breed, but already generally as room and decorative reigned in the whole Europe. The rate was a symbol of respectability and homeliness. In the 20th years in Germany the first place by quantity and popularity was occupied by German shepherds, and the second — a dachshund. The rate in Germany is national breed. The German village Gergveys is called "the capital of dachshunds" since on each yard, and their about 100, for many decades breed these little hunting dogs. For puppies come from around the world here. The rate was a symbol of the Olympic Games of 1972 which were taking place in Munich too.

Removed in Germany, the dachshund in the XIX century quickly extended across all Western Europe. Enjoyed wide popularity of a dachshund in Austria, Sweden and England. And the English kennel-club improved breed and received the type of rates which is preferred in Australia. In the USA the first dachshunds were registered during the period between 1879 and 1885, and in 1895 was based dachshunds clubs as office of the American kennel-club. In the USA the dachshund is a little used as a hunting dog. She is considered generally a dog sports there, however and here pay tribute to her working qualities.

the dachshund is known to

In Russia from 30th years of the XVII century. Its emergence is connected with a name of the empress Anna Ioannovna who was a wife of the duke Kurland, and then and the ruler of this duchy. In Kurland dachshunds were esteemed almost also, as well as in Germany. Having moved to St. Petersburg, the empress the passionate lover of hunting brought also dachshunds. Russia called them "streletsky dogs", and is later "barsuchka". Fleet and hounds, a dachshund had no such wide circulation as primordially Russian breeds, but was rather popular. Interest in little underground dogs in Russia began to increase in the second half of the 19th century, and especially numerous dachshunds became in the late eighties. However they were seldom used for hunting, and were generally room dogs.

In 1900 "The Russian society of fans of fox terriers and dachshunds" is created. Society issued the Hunting newspaper and had the breeding book. By then in Russia all kinds of dachshunds on a wool cover and the sizes were known. Long there was a view of a dachshund as on a dwarfish form of the German hounds. At exhibitions they were estimated both packs, and bows as hounds though experts knew that trace work on a surface not the main specialty of a dachshund. In Brockhaus and Efron's encyclopedic dictionary (1901) it is written: "Application of dachshunds is very various, they replace a terrier, a hound, a retriever and a room sentry dog mainly they are used for hunting in holes for a badger and a fox".

After the revolution and civil war business of cultivation of thoroughbred dogs revives, but dachshunds endure long recession of popularity. Only after the Great Patriotic War growth of their number, however as a room and decorative dog begins. Interest in hunting qualities of a dachshund allowed in the late forties — to begin the beginning of the 50th years activities for establishing field work with them. In the 60th years amateur enthusiasts worked on improvement of working qualities of dogs hard. By the end of the 80th years the number of dachshunds considerably increased, demand for puppies constantly increases, there are new film logical centers for cultivation of dachshunds in different regions of the country. In the early nineties the quantity of dachshunds already surpasses other breeds of hunting dogs.

From the book "Dachshund" by I.I. Orlov-Shilnikov

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