• Jan 9, 2020

Standard of a German shepherd of FCI No. 166 (07.08.1996)






Universal guard dog (shepherd's, sentry, etc.)


Group 1. Sheep-dogs and skotogonny dogs (excepting the Swiss sheep-dogs)
Section 1. Sheep-dogs.


With tests of working qualities.

On a photo: German shepherd

BRIEF HISTORICAL INFORMATION: According to the official decision the Union of a German shepherd (Verein fr Deutsche Schdferhunde) with a residence in Augsburg, as the member of the German Kennel-club (Verband fr das Deutsche Hundewesen e.V., VDH) and as recognized association on breed, is responsible for the standard of a German shepherd. This standard originally was made at the first meeting of members of the Union in Frankfurt am Main on September 20, 1899 according to the offer of A. Meyer and von Stephanitz. Amendments to the standard were made at the 6th meeting of members on July 28, 1901, at the 23rd meeting in Cologne on September 17, 1909, at a meeting of Council of heads and Advisory committee in Wiesbaden (Germany) on September 5, 1930, at a meeting of Council of heads and the Breeding commission on March 25, 1961. The standard was corrected and adopted by the World union of a German shepherd (Weltunion fr Deutsche Schaferhunde, WUSV) on August 30, 1976 and is reconsidered and ordered, following the decision of Council of heads and Advisory committee on March 23-24, 1991
the German shepherd whose planned cultivation began in 1899 after formation of the Union of a German shepherd, originally was under construction on cultivation of the shepherd's dogs of the Central and Southern Germany who are available then with an ultimate goal to create the dog extremely suitable for the services which are most demanded in practice. For achievement of this purpose the pedigree standard on a German shepherd was improved, underlining the correct anatomic building and, in particular, healthy temperament and good character.
GENERAL VIEW: The German shepherd of the average size who is slightly stretched, strong and brawny, with not rough frame and sturdily-build.
BEHAVIOUR AND TEMPERAMENT: The German shepherd has to be balanced, judicious (with strong nerves), self-assured, in general quiet (excepting provocations) and good temper and also attentive and easily trained. She has to have courage, fighting spirit and firmness to correspond to the appointment as guard dog: partner, watchman, shepherd and so forth
HEAD: Wedge-shaped it is also proportional to growth, i.e. its length is about 40% of height in withers, without roughness and not too extended. Dry in general, moderately wide between ears. The forehead at survey in front and sideways only slightly roundish, a median furrow is absent or is only slightly designated.
the Relation of a cranial part to front — 50% for 50%. Width of a cranial part is approximately equal to its length. At survey from above the cranium is evenly narrowed from ears to a back of a nose and gradually shchipets, with gradual, not too sharp transition from a forehead to a muzzle passes with a bevel into wedge-shaped. The upper and lower jaws are strongly developed. A nose back the straight line, any deflection or a small hump are not desirable. Lips are dry, skintight and dark color.
nose Lobe: Has to be black.
TEETH: Have to be strong and healthy a full tooth formula (42 teeth according to a tooth formula). At a German shepherd the nozhnitseobrazny bite, i.e. cutters have to be adjusted to each other like scissors so that cutters of the upper jaw blocked cutters of the lower jaw in a nozhnitseobrazny manner. A direct bite, недокус or having a snack wide intervals between teeth are defects, as well as (gaps). Equally the linear arrangement of cutters on a straight line is wrong. Maxillary bones have to be strongly developed that a denture made was strongly had in alveoluses.
of an EYE: Average size, almond-shaped, are put in slightly slanting section, not convex. Color of eyes has to be as it is possible more darkly. Light eyes with a penetrating glance are not desirable as it influences expression of a dog.
EARS: At a German shepherd standing ears of the average size which keep vertically are directed in parallel (do not meet inside). They are narrowed by the ends, and auricles are open forward. Semi-standing or trailing ears are defect. The ears which are stuffed up back in the movement or at rest are not a shortcoming.
NECK: The neck has to be strong, brawny and without suspension. A corner of its inclination to the horizon about 45 0 .
CASE: The line of top integral, extends from the neck basis on well expressed withers and on a back, is put very slightly in inclined position to the horizon, gradually passing into an inclined croup. The back is strong, strong, brawny. The waist is wide, strongly developed, brawny. The croup has to be long, slightly inclined (about 23 0 to the horizon) and to merge imperceptibly with the tail basis.
Breast: Moderately wide, a breast longer, lower part of a breast is well developed. Depth of a breast has to be 45 – 48% of height in withers. Edges barrel-shaped or too flat are defect.
TAIL: Reaches at least a skakatelny joint, however, not further the middle of an instep. On its bottom side wool is slightly longer, the tail keeps hanging down in a soft bend. When the dog is excited or is in the movement, the tail rises and keeps above, but not above a horizontal line. Surgical correction is forbidden.
FRONT PART: At survey from all directions front legs direct and at a look in front absolutely parallel. Shovels and humeral levers are equal on length, muskulist also are strongly attached to the case. A corner between a shovel and a humeral bone it is ideal 90 0 , but generally to 110 0 .
Elbows should not be substituted inside or turned out outside, neither at rest, nor in the movement. At survey from all directions forearms direct and absolutely parallel each other, dry and brawny. Пясть about 1/3 lengths long a forearm, it is located at an angle 20 — 22 0 to it. Weak pyast (at an angle more than 22 0 ) or steep (at an angle less than 20 0 ) affect working suitability of a dog, especially her endurance.
Forepaws: Roundish, in a lump, with svodisty fingers of a small pillow the strong, but not cracked claws strong, dark color.
BACK PART: Posts of back extremities slightly set aside at a look behind they are parallel each other. The hip and a shin of approximately identical length also form a corner about 120 0 , strong and brawny. Skakatelny joints strong, steady. Insteps stand vertically under skakatelny joints.
Hinder legs: Compact, slightly svodisty small pillows firm and dark color claws strong, svodisty and also dark on color.
of the MOVEMENT: A German shepherd — a rysisty dog. Extremities have to be so coordinated on length and corners of joints that without noticeable change of the line of top hind legs could push a trunk forward while front legs are taken out on equal distance. Any tendency to a sablistost reduces stability and endurance and, as a result, ability to work. The correct proportions of a body and corners of joints lead to the creeping wide movements making an advance impression forward without efforts. The head pushed forward and the raised tail bring to a uniform lynx without efforts, showing softly curved, continuous line of top from tips of ears, on a neck and a back to a tail tip.
SKIN: Skin freely adjacent, without any folds.
WOOL: The correct hair of a German shepherd — double (Stockhaar) with an integumentary hair and an underfur. The integumentary hair has to be as it is possible for a thick, direct, rough and skintight to a body. On the head, inside of ears, front side of legs, paws and fingers wool short on a neck it is insignificant more long and more dense. On back side of extremities to pyasty and skakatelny joints wool is longer. It forms moderate trousers on back side of hips.
COLOUR: Black with reddish-brown, brown, yellow to light gray burn marks. Continuous black or continuous gray. Zonarno-serye show a black shabrack and a mask. Not evident, small white marks on breasts, as well as very light color on internal surfaces are admissible, but are not desirable. All colors have to have a black lobe of a nose. Dogs with lack of a mask, light eyes, as well as with whitish burn marks on a breast and internal surfaces, pale claws and the red end of a tail, are considered as individuals with insufficient pigmentation. Light gray underfur. The white color is not allowed.
Dogs: height in withers of 60 — 65 cm,
Weight is 30 — 40 kg.
Boughs: height in withers of 55 — 60 cm,
weight is 22 — 32 kg.
the Slanting length of a trunk is about 10 — 17% more than height in withers.
DEFECTS: Any deviation from the above-stated points has to be considered as a shortcoming or defect depending on expressiveness degree.
  • Any deviation from above the described pedigree signs which affects ability of a dog to work.
  • Defects of ears: too low put ears, the soft ends, ears directed to each other. The fluctuating ears.
  • Serious shortcomings of pigmentation.
  • Serious deviations from strong type of addition.
  • Defects of a tooth system: all deviations from a nozhnitseobrazny bite and the correct tooth formula if they are not included in the disqualifying defects given below.

  • Weak temperament and nervous system, biting dog.
  • Dogs with the deformed ears or a tail.
  • Dogs with malformations.
  • Dogs with lack of the following teeth:
  • One third премоляр (P3) plus one additional tooth, either one canine, or one fourth премоляр (P4), or one first or the second painter (M1 or Sq.m), or in the sum three and more absent tooth.
  • Dogs with defects of jaws, недокус more than 2 mm, having a snack the direct bite formed by all 12 cutters.
  • the Deviation from standard growth up or down more than 1 cm
  • Albinism.
  • the White shirt (even with dark eyes and claws).
  • the Long integumentary hair (a long, soft, not smoothly adjacent integumentary hair with an underfur, tows behind ears and standing, fluffy trousers and a fluffy tail with a suspension — Langstockhaar).
  • Long wool (a long, soft integumentary hair without underfur, mostly the breaking-up to a hair parting in the middle of a back, uborny ear, legs and tail hair — Langhaar).
NOTE: Dogs have to have two obviously normal testicles which are completely lowered in a scrotum.

Related Articles