- Feb 3, 2020
- Jan 14, 2020
Very few people will begin to challenge a statement that a dog — the best friend of the person. Not without reason this animal became the first pet of ancient people. There is a lot of hypotheses telling about domestication process. On the basis of studying of DNA of modern and ancient dogs scientists put forward the theory that it was made at first in Europe, and then in Asia. However recently geneticists challenged a hypothesis that dogs were cultivated twice.
Scientists considered several possible scenarios of domestication. Researchers were interested who whom tamed: person dog or on the contrary. of Options as it is possible to guess, arose 2:
The first scenario assumes a possibility that the group of wild animals independently began to master a new ecological niche and to lodge near human parking. It is noted that derelicts who for some reason could not get on in the general pack could become these animals. It had to have bigger tolerance to people in comparison with ordinary wolves.
The American scientists made in this respect one more interesting hypothesis. They claim that canine friends are carriers of "a syndrome of the elf" . This disease connected with damage of the seventh chromosome at people leads to a delay of intellectual development, increase in trustfulness and friendliness.
At pets not the seventh, but the sixth chromosome is changed. Bridzhet van Holdt and her colleagues from Princeton University (USA) assume that wolves with such syndrome began to live near people as reorganization of chromosomes replaced with fear and aggression with friendliness .
Opponents of the theory of self-domestication made other assumption according to which people on own initiative tamed puppies of a wolf. It is considered that it was made with a specific goal. The first dogs were necessary to people as assistants during hunting.
On the basis of studying of a genome of animals scientists of the University of Oxford in 2016 came to a conclusion that wolves were cultivated twice independently of each other: for the first time it was made in Western Europe, and later several thousands of years in Asia.
It is interesting that all modern breeds of dog came from Asian group. Her representatives got together with people from Asia to other parts of the world and forced out local inhabitants.
Having studied a genome of modern dogs and wolves and having compared it to ancient remains, the American scientists came to a conclusion that ancestors of present pets really are 2 populations . However geneticists put forward the opinion supported with results of work that division into these populations could happen after domestication. That is the previous hypothesis of double domestication if is not denied completely, then is precisely called into question.
About when and as there was a domestication of dogs, it is difficult for to draw unambiguous conclusions even to the modern geneticists possessing a serious arsenal of knowledge and abilities. However in one scientists are solidary — this process was long and multi-stage.