- Sep 20, 2019
- Jan 13, 2019
- Jan 15, 2020
by appearance that for fur is used for this or that product, but as the marten or a mink looks, know not everything. And meanwhile martens are very beautiful small predators with very interesting habits.
In general martens are predators of average height. There are different types of these animals which differ not only in color of fur, but also growth, the sizes. They have also general characteristics, for example, short five-fingered pads. Fingers on them are divided and free. And on these fingers – sharp claws. One more common feature – a sharp muzzle with the short, divided into two parts ears. The body at martens harmonious, quite long, a tail is shorter, but all the same impressive. It has no such beautiful fan as at squirrel tails, but it and is not necessary for martens, the shape of a tail does their body to more streamline and gives them additional speed.
It is interesting that martens differ in quite difficult behavior. Many people represent how they clamber on trees by means of the fingers and claws. But not all know that at these predators the motility is developed at the level of the three-year-old child. And still these animals can do gymnastics, they in general love outdoor games. And in such games both adult individuals, and cubs spend much time. Little martens can spend in general the whole day behind games. It is interesting that during the games they make the sounds similar to cooing.
A marten – the predator, eats generally small rodents and birds, can hunt rats of whom even some cats are rather afraid. Besides, she likes to regale on bird's eggs. The bird is a special object for hunting. the Marten – an animal who likes to play with the production. If she gets into the hen house, then can strangle several birds and lay their carcasses in a row. At all the prettiness such small animal is quite blood-thirsty and can suck blood of birds.
There are different types of a marten, and their appearance can differ considerably from each other. For example, there are American martens. As well as follows from their name, they live on the North American continent. They have very wide area of dwelling – practically from northern timberline on Alaska and to the State of New Mexico.
The American martens clamber on trees not worse, than all other types and therefore they prefer to lodge in forests both coniferous, and deciduous or mixed. Unfortunately, because of trade and reduction of the area of forests also population of the American small animals decreases.
Why hunt for this predator so much? Because the American martens are owners of soft, dense and very beautiful fur. Its color can vary from pale yellow (it seems that rays of the sun clamber on trees) to a reddish and brown shade with chocolate notes. The neck at such animals is lighter, than the trunk, and legs and a tail – is more dark. Most often they have a dark brown shade. On a muzzle such animals have two black strips which go vertically from eyes.
the American martens, as well as other their fellows, possess a fluffy long tail. If the body of an adult male has length of 45 cm, then length of a tail can be 15-23 cm. The weight of such small animal is up to 1.3 kg. Usually it is less female, but not much more.
The cub of the American marten is a charming creation. He can clamber on trees, play with age-mates, t.е. there is no special difference from other types.
The most valuable version living in the territory of Russia is the forest marten. This very graceful animal. This is a little marten who differs in very beautiful fur. She has an oblong trunk and very fluffy tail. Unlike other species of martens, at this small animal length of a tail exceeds a half of a trunk. The tail is the real decoration of this predator. But at the same time it and some kind of "tool" as it helps a marten to clamber on trees, keeping balance.
These animals are perfectly adapted for climate with severe winters. the Foot of their paws with arrival of cold weather become covered by a hair so martens can move enough quickly not only on snowdrifts, but also on ice. It is often possible to see such predators climbing trees. It is possible thanks to a shape of a tail and also existence of sharp curved claws which can be involved half.
Forest martens possess the wide and extended muzzles. For such size of the head these animals have quite powerful jaws, and still they have sharp teeth. Ears at this marten triangular, but with the rounded corners, at the same time they dark coloring with lighter yellow edging.
A nose at such animal ostrenkiya of black color. Eyes are dark, but as predators often lead a nocturnalism, in the evening day they become copper-colored. The cub of this look possesses very nice muzzle and an innocent look, but you should not be under a delusion – it is a predator too and in the presence of an opportunity will hunt for any moving trifle, even for master's fingers.
Valuable fur for the sake of which people hunt this marten differs in very beautiful coloring. Most often it light brown with a subtle brownish or yellowish shade. On a back and extremities wool is more dark. On a neck of a marten there is lighter spot, most often yellowish coloring. It has rounded shape and by the sizes less, than at other kinds of martens. This spot gave a marten the second name – a zheltodushka.
By the size of a zheltodushka do not exceed a large cat. And cubs the sizes have not much more, than at kittens.
Forest martens meet across all territory of Eurasia – they are not only in Russia, but also in Iran, Great Britain and the Mediterranean. These animals prefer to lodge in the deciduous or mixed forests. Such predator it is possible to see clambering on a tree trunk in search of a hollow where it would be possible to arrange a den. And do not disdain also old squirrel nests. of the Open area these small animals avoid, go down from trees only for the sake of hunting. And though some of such small animals lodge in mountains, stony landscapes in itself do not attract them. In such areas of a marten all the same choose forests.
These animals are the most widespread kind of family marten in the territory of Europe. Whether it be the adult individual or a cub, these animals are absolutely fearless. It is the only look which is not afraid to lodge near the person.
This nice small animal – the marten stone — possesses usual for some kind of a constitution. It has an oblong harmonious trunk and rather short (for such little body) extremities. A tail long and fluffy, and it is not so difficult to confuse such animal with a forest marten. The main difference between them is a form and coloring of a cervical spot. At stone it has a white shade and the doubled form. In certain cases it even covers practically all breast to forepaws. It is available even for cubs and is absent only at some Asian kinds of a stone marten.
Marten these animals differ from other representatives of family in the fact that their foot do not become covered with wool even in cold season. Besides, individuals possess light noses. Wool of such beauties has quite effective gray-brown shade.
Stone martens more small, than other their relatives. Body length even at a male does not exceed 55 cm, length of a tail is about a half from this size. And here the weight of this small animal can be nearly twice more, than other representatives have families.
the Stone marten is found practically in all Eurasia . She perfectly adapted also in North America (for example, in the State of Wisconsin). In America it is parted only for the sake of hunting.
The stone marten is the only representative some kind of, it is optional to them to live only in the forest. Moreover, she loves the open area overgrown with bushes or separate trees. Such predators love a stony landscape, as distinguishes them from other predators such. Moreover, stone martens often lodge in sheds, farm buildings or on attics.
And here a way of life at them approximately same, as well as at other representatives of family. In the afternoon they have a rest, and are active generally at night. So far light, such predators hide in crevices, heaps of stones, on attics, etc. At night they leave in search of production which are small birds and rodents. It is interesting that each small animal has own site for hunting, as well as at a forest marten, and they mark it in the same way, by means of a special secret. But at the same time the site will be less, than at other predators – up to 210 hectares. The marten will protect this territory from any enemies. At females land area is even less, but predators lead quite active life.
These animals are omnivorous. they Prefer food of animal origin. Besides small rodents, they hunt frogs, bird's eggs, complement the menu with insects. Throwing of birds only awakens a hunting instinct in these predators. Berries and fruit in summertime are very important too.
It is interesting that in spite of the fact that on a stone marten hunting for the sake of its magnificent fur is constantly conducted, it is after all not so large-scale hunting, as on more valuable forest martens. These animals are often killed as the wreckers causing damage to hen houses and stealing rabbits. Besides, stone martens often misbehave – they peregryzat hoses and cables in cars that can lead to accident. Why they behave so strange? Because they are attracted by residual heat of the motor and it was begun to smell. These animals try to mark cars as the territory. It is interesting that the cars left on the parking for the night most often suffer.
One more kind of a marten is a harza. These animals are called also Ussuriysk or zheltogrudy. They are found also in the territory of Russia, generally in Priamurye and a river basin of Ussuri. From here and their name. But the area of their dwelling is wider, it includes also Nepal, Pakistan, India, Afghanistan, China, Korea and even the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. Rough fur of this marten is not in demand. Nevertheless this look belongs to disappearing, and scientists are engaged in restoration of population of these animals. Acclimatization of the Ussuriysk marten in the Crimea, Adygea, North Ossetia was carried successfully out.
Harza is the largest marten from those that are found in the territory of Russia . Length of her body can be up to 80 cm, and a tail – up to 44 cm. The weight of such animal can reach 5.7 kg. They possess the extended and very flexible body. Extremities are short, especially for such trunk. Fur at them seems rough though it has a beautiful shade and shines.
The Ussuriysk martens differ in complex paint. The head and a muzzle of them usually black, except for the lower jaw – it is white. Wool on a neck and a breast has a bright yellow shade while fur in general possesses a golden-brown shade. Summer fur seems even more roughly, than winter, especially on a back.
Harza, as well as other representatives of family marten, perfectly clamber on trees, and, despite short pads, they very quickly run, jump from a branch on a branch, can make quite long jumps – to 4 m in length. It is interesting that, despite rather modest sizes, it is one of the strongest predators in this region. He hunts generally rodents, and does not disdain hares and squirrels. But can sometimes eat berries and pine nuts, sometimes even devours honeycombs of wild bees.
Thus, practically all species of martens differ in beautiful fur. It puts this family on a disappearance side in many regions.