- Sep 20, 2019
- Sep 20, 2019
- Jan 15, 2020
the polar fox — very beautiful animal belonging to family of canids lives In the most northern areas of the planet. Externally it is strongly similar to a fox, from here and the second name of a polar fox – a polar fox. But despite it, the polar fox is allocated in other sort to which only one look belongs.
Despite huge similarity of a polar fox with red, the difference between them after all exists. Ears at a polar fox have the rounded-off form and during a winter time of year they seem shorter because of a dense fur coat of an animal. In the summer, on the contrary, ears visually seem big. A muzzle short and a little pointed. Pads at a small animal stocky and too have a dense woolen cover. Besides, at pads there are so-called small pillows which allow to soften landing of an animal during the movement or jumps. To scare the enemies or competitors, the animal is capable to growl.
Length of a body of a polar fox is from 50 to 70 cm, and length of a tail can reach from 25 to 35 cm. And here a weight indicator seasonally can possess an essential difference:
The difference in weight is explained by the fact that with approach of winter the small animal gains weight due to accumulation of fatty tissue in which a large amount of nutrients concentrates. Besides, fatty tissue performs also protective function which consists in stabilization of body temperature.
The look is characterized by existence of sensitive sense of smell and fine hearing. But other sensor systems at an animal not the best. For example, the sight at a polar fox is not able to provide it full perception of the environment.
Thanks to perfectly developed musculoskeletal system, the animal can move quickly enough. From all groups of muscles muscles of extremities which allow an animal to run quickly are most developed.
Thanks to the developed muscles, the unique structure of jaws and teeth, the animal is a predator. the Polar fox without special difficulties is capable to break bones of the victims.
there Are only 2 subspecies of an animal: white and blue . These subspecies of polar foxes differ not only in color of wool, but also some other its features.
The habitat of a polar fox practically all North Pole is considered. The animal is quite widespread also on other lands, for example, in North America and on the New earth. Big populations of a polar fox are recorded in the territory of the Canadian archipelago, on Aleutian and the Commander Islands and in the territory of a northern part of Eurasia.
In a tundra zone of a northern part of the planet the polar fox is considered the only predator. This fluffy animal perfectly adapted to severe climatic conditions of the Arctic.
it is impossible to call the Polar fox a reckless animal , on the contrary, the predator during hunting shows big care. At the same time for successful hunting the polar fox often shows ingenuity, impudence and persistence. If on the way to the production the little polar fox meets the competitor of larger sizes, then it not always hurries to concede. Only some time he will pretend that he concedes to the strongest, thereby waiting for an opportunity, and then all the same will achieve the. Numerous observations showed that other predators indulgently concern a polar fox therefore you should not be surprised to the fact that the huge polar bear will peacefully divide production together with a cunning and rather impudent polar fox.
If the polar fox is not threatened by danger, then he without fear approaches human housing, steals products from cellars and sheds and also from dogs and cats. Quite often people even tamed small animals, they safely ate and played together with pets.
As for hunting then polar foxes behave differently. Some actively get food independently, others eat remains of the animals killed with other predators. For this reason the polar fox brings "friendship" with a polar bear to winter season. Thanks to such favorable coexistence, he will always be full.
The main production of a polar fox are lemmings in the winter. He looks for them in snow layers. With arrival of heat the polar polar fox begins to hunt birds. Food of a polar fox among birds are:
Geese differ in big care and as soon as the animal begins to approach the victim, birds at once give a vote, warning about danger of the relatives. But cunning polar foxes come for hunting in couples. Thanks to such strategic decision, they always come back with production. Even if it was not succeeded to catch a bird, then they find nests with baby birds or eggs and carry away with themselves so much how many will be located in a mouth.
Food is necessary for a polar fox not only to satisfy feeling of hunger, but also to make stocks on hard times. Usually the small animal buries the got meat, rodents, birds, fish to the earth or hides under an ice layer.
With arrival of a warm time the terrible predator becomes partially the vegetarian. Considering simplicity of getting of vegetable food, in the summer the polar fox gives the preference to seaweed, various berries and greens. Therefore a fat polar fox in the summer – an unusual occurrence. Often polar foxes approach close the sea and collect on the bank of the thrown-out fishes, starfishes and hedgehogs. Besides, on the seashore the polar fox often finds remains of walruses and seals. If the polar fox is strongly hungry, then at a meeting with the wounded and the weakened animal, for example, with a seal, the polar fox can kill him, and then eat. The animal can hide and eat what will remain later.
The number of population of a polar fox is in direct dependence on their main forage – lemmings. Scientists recorded the facts when in a certain territory too small quantity of lemmings because of what the number of polar foxes was considerably reduced lived. Much from them died from insufficient amount of food. To the contrary, at a huge number of lemmings the number of polar foxes increases too.
How the polar fox depending on change of climate looks? The main distinctive feature of a small animal is seasonal change of color of its wool.
Hair of a polar fox has reddish-black or grayish-brown color in the summer. dark shades at separate parts of a body of an animal can Sometimes be present. Very seldom in the nature the black polar fox meets.
To arrival of winter there is a sharp change of color of wool on white or on smoky-gray to presence of a blue outflow. In most cases color of a winter fur coat of a small animal ideally white.
Change of climate also affects quality of wool. For example, in the summer fur more rare, but with arrival of the first frosts its density considerably increases. All body of a small animal becomes covered with very dense wool including a tail.
The winter for a polar fox is time of overcoming long distances in search of food. But even despite the kochevnichesky way of life, the polar fox does housing in snow. It is interesting that, being in the den, during sleep the animal very badly hears that it allows to approach it on quite short distance.
Practically all winter the polar fox is forced to change the residence . In case of lack of the competition from the relatives or representatives of other types the small animal can remain in a certain territory before heat.
The commonplace is considered when during winter migrations the small animal gets on big pieces of ice on which he overcomes hundreds of kilometers on water. Once scientists recorded a case when the animal overcame nearly 5,000 km. The small animal began the migration with Taimyr and finished in the territory of Alaska.
With arrival of summer the polar fox occupies a certain territory where remains before frosts. As a rule, in the summer polar foxes live in family where females of different age and posterity of the current year enter. Usually the territory of accommodation of family makes 30 sq.m.
Sometimes nearby several families, forming small colony can live. The individuals living nearby from each other can communicate by means of a so-called pogavkivaniye. When the summer comes to an end, the created pestsovy settlements are disbanded.
Before getting posterity, polar foxes are forced to make to themselves a den. Considering that the Arctic lands strongly freeze through on depth up to 1 m, the animal looks for the place for a hole in more sublime territories. Besides, on plains there is a danger of flooding of a den.
Interestingly and the fact that a warm den can pass from father to son on an extent of more than 20 years. If the family decided to leave old housing, then new will be under construction near the former residence. Moreover, small animals practically always connect a new and old den. Thanks to it the whole system of labyrinths is created, and the quantity of entrances to them can reach 60.
The polar fox does not seek to leave finally old housing as he can return to it, update and continue to live a little there.
Modern researchers found pestsovy labyrinths which were operated more century.
One more indispensable condition when choosing the place of a construction of housing for polar foxes is existence of stones. Stones perform protective function.
The reproduction period at a polar fox begins in April. A part of individuals creates couples, and a part prefers the polygamous relations. When at females the techka begins, males rivals can arrange among themselves fights. By means of fights males attract attention females. Besides fights, for flirting also other ways can be used. For example, the male brings to a female food or runs near it with a stick in teeth.
The period of pregnancy is slightly less than 2 months – up to 56 days. Approximately in two weeks prior to childbirth the female begins to prepare the den. She digs one more mink and cleans it from garbage. On average about 9 cubs are born, but there were cases when the maximum number of kids reached 20.