• Oct 18, 2018

Epilepsy at cats – disorder of a brain which leads to spasms with loss or without consciousness loss. It is difficult to remain quiet during an epileptic attack. But it is necessary to make it – life of the favourite pet depends on fast and competent actions of the person.

Veterinarians-neurologists urge owners to be cool to provide first aid – cats do not die during an attack.

First aid

10 urgent councils for owners of cats with an epileptic seizure

The cat's behavior during an attack is not controlled – the pet can accidentally wound himself. The owner has to prevent possible injuries as much as possible.

What to do during an epileptic seizure

  1. Do not touch the pet and do not try to move him. An exception – threat of falling from height. If the attack overtook a cat on a window sill, a ladder or high furniture, lower her on a floor by means of a dense towel.
  2. Remove all objects against which the cat can hit. Put pillows on furniture corners, to table legs, doorways that the animal did not face them.
  3. Indoors with a sick animal turn off the light and electric devices, close curtains, transfer the TV to the silent mode.
  4. Ask members of household to leave the room.
  5. Keep calm, you do not fuss, you do not rustle, do not try to talk to the pet – it can strengthen neurologic reaction.
  6. Do not hold a cat. It is allowed to raise the head of an animal by means of a towel and to turn it sideways to save from injuries.
  7. You do not bring fingers to a mouth of an animal at all, the cat will bite and will not be able to unclench a jaw before the termination of an attack.
  8. It is impossible to thrust a hand into a mouth, trying to pull out language outside – language will not sink down if the animal lies on a plain surface with the head turned on one side.
  9. Record time of the beginning and the termination of spasms. Whenever possible film an attack – it will help your veterinarian with further diagnostics.
  10. Upon termination of an attack call the veterinarian for consultation. If the attack lasted longer than 5 minutes – call the expert on the house.

Important!

Do not try to unclench teeth to a cat fingers or a spoon at all. Do not insert any objects into a mouth – so you injure an animal and yourself.

of the Reason of emergence

Epilepsy is shown as uncontrollable muscular activity (spasms) as a result of temporary violation of normal functioning of a brain. The attack can have single character or repeat with some frequency. In veterinary science allocate two groups of the reasons of epileptic attacks: congenital, acquired.

Congenital reasons

  1. Congenital genetic anomalies of a brain.
  2. Inbreeding – closely related crossing. Most we will wound the first issue.
  3. Patrimonial injuries of newborns.
  4. Intoxication and infections during pregnancy of a cat provoke epilepsy at a kitten.
  5. Heredity. Animal husbandry with defective genes.

The congenital reasons of epilepsy at cats are established only by results of diagnostic testings.

the Acquired reasons

  1. Benign and malignant tumors of a brain.
  2. Craniocereberal injuries: bruise and concussion of a brain, contusion.
  3. Endocrine pathologies, violation of a hormonal background.
  4. Heart failure.
  5. Bacterial and viral infections: infectious peritonitis, plague carnivorous, cat's leukemia, rage, bacterial meningitis.
  6. Lack of minerals (Mg, Ca) and vitamins (D, B2, B6, B12), necessary for work of nervous system.
  7. Stress. Fright.
  8. Endocrine pathologies.
  9. Long starvation, violation of the mode of feeding.
  10. Helminthosis – infection with worms.
  11. Urolithic disease, renal failure.

Important!

This group of the reasons – difficult comes to light and often does not contact an attack. Years can divide an attack and the reason which caused it.

Treatment

Therapy of epilepsy at a cat assumes knocking over of attacks by means of anticonvulsant medicines and to achievement of long intervals of remission.

Lifelong remission is reached at 15-30% of cats. At other animals it is only possible to reduce the frequency of attacks and to facilitate their current.

True epilepsy – is up to the end not curable.

Completely it is possible to cure only the pathology caused by the acquired reasons, having removed these causes.

When is necessary for an animal the medicamentous help

The decision on an initiation of treatment of epileptic seizures is made by the doctor-veterinarian on the basis of data on their frequency and duration. The owner of a cat has to fix these data and tell the expert.

Treatment is not required if attacks of epilepsy are noted 1-2 times a year, and at a cat no chronic diseases are revealed. The owner has to watch constantly the pet and create for him the safety habitat.

When attacks repeat monthly and more often, last longer than 5 minutes, their weight increases – the cat needs the help.

Drugs and the scheme of their application are appointed by the veterinarian-neurologist. The incorrect choice of medicine and its dosage can increase weight, frequency and duration of an attack.

Medicines

The arsenal of medicines for treatment of convulsive attacks of cats is small in view of their strong toxicity.

Veterinarians appoint:

  1. Phenobarbital – effective anticonvulsant remedy in syrup and tablets. Reduces excitement of nervous system of a cat, increases resistance to stress, prevents approach of an attack. The dosage is selected the attending physician. Is on sale according to the recipe.

The recommended dose – 1-2 mg on 1 kg of live weight 2-3 times a day.

Contraindications: chronic diseases of a liver.

Side effect: block, drowsiness, thirst.

  1. Diazepam – medicine for knocking over of an epileptic attack, reduces brain activity. Facilitates the period of recovering from an attack. Has the expressed antidisturbing action. It is appointed in the form of rectal candles.

The recommended dose: 1 mg on 1 kg of live weight. The first dose is entered at the beginning of spasms, the subsequent within 24 hours at an interval of 8 hours.

Contraindications: chronic diseases of a liver.

Side effect: oppression, excitability, abnormal behavior.

Dosage: "idiopathic epilepsy" is selected individually the veterinarian after confirmation of the diagnosis.

Contraindications: weight is lower than 5 kg.

Side effect: loss of appetite, vomiting.

Important!

Cats are forbidden to give human epilepsy medicine.

That the owner of a sick cat has to do

Cats with true epilepsy need lifelong treatment and observation from the veterinarian.

Her owner has to follow the following rules strictly:

  1. Strictly to observe a medicine dosage.
  2. Daily to give drugs on the scheme appointed by the doctor at the same time.
  3. Not to address traditional medicine – before epilepsy it is powerless.
  4. Not to interrupt treatment without the permission of the veterinarian.
  5. Every month to visit clinic for a blood test fence.
  6. Regularly to conduct neurologic researches – at least, than once a month.
  7. To keep the diary of observations: to fix date, time, character and duration of attacks, behavioural changes before an attack.

Important!

At long administration of drugs at a cat anemia can develop – it is necessary to watch hemoglobin level constantly.

How to understand that treatment helps

The appointed scheme of treatment is considered successful if at a cat epileptic seizures completely stopped or their frequency was reduced twice. At the same time there should not be side effects from the taken drugs. That the veterinarian could estimate efficiency of drugs, the owner needs to keep the diary of observations. In it dates of attacks, their type, features and duration are documented.

The plan of treatment is revised by the veterinarian if the frequency of spasms at a cat was not reduced by 50%. It can happen because of incorrect diagnosis, individual reaction of an animal to medicines, incorrectly picked up dosage.

If attacks at a cat are absent more than a year, the doctor can appoint stage-by-stage decrease in a dosage of medicines. The one-stage termination of anti-epileptic medicines is not allowed – it causes "a cancellation syndrome".

Types of epilepsy

Depending on the reasons which caused pathology, epilepsy at a cat shares on:

  1. Congenital (idiopathic). The reasons of a congenital form of a disease are difficult diagnosed. The disease accompanies an animal all life. Eventually, in the absence of appropriate treatment, weight and duration of attacks can increase. The cat needs lifelong observation and the supporting therapy.
  2. Acquired (symptomatic). Spasms at cats – a consequence of injuries of the head or a complication of other diseases. At identification of the prime cause and its adequate treatment – at an animal high chances of recovery.

Symptoms

The epileptic seizure has several pronounced phases, at each of which the characteristic symptoms. Owners of cats need to know them to manage to give an animal first aid.

  • The Prodromalny phase – preparation for an attack. Passes imperceptibly for the owner. Lasts from several hours to 2-3 days. Differs in the increased uneasiness and nervousness of an animal.
  • Harbingers (aura) – the animal inadequately reacts to owners, is frightened the slightest sound. The pet becomes absent-minded, small twitchings of muscles are observed an incoordination. The full immovability of the pet can be a harbinger. Period duration – from 1 to 30 min.
  • An attack (a convulsive phase) – an epileptic seizure. Often begins in a dream. It is characterized by large spasms of muscles with a backbone deflection. The animal is filled up on one side. Partial numbness of a body is observed. Breath of a cat heavy and faltering. Consciousness loss, involuntary defecation and depletion of a bladder is possible. From a mouth foam of a white or pink shade is emitted. The phase lasts – from 2 to 30 minutes.
  • The Postiktalny phase – the restoration period. The animal tests weakness, slackness and a depression. The consciousness confused the cat does not recognize the owner, is frightened. The increased appetite can develop. The exit period from a state can drag on up to 3 days.

At each cat the epileptic attack is shown in own way, phases last different time, can be greased, not pronounced.

Important!

Often repeating attacks lead to the strongest oxygen starvation and dying off (necrosis) of cells of a brain.

Epileptic status

The most serious condition, leading to serious complications, up to a lethal outcome, is an epileptic status.

Carry to it:

  1. Attacks which last more than 5 min.
  2. Attacks between which in breaks, the cat does not manage to recover consciousness.

The danger of the epileptic status consists that the brain of an animal tests the strongest overloads. At cats serious neurologic pathologies develop and life expectancy is reduced. Such state demands surgery of veterinary experts.

Diagnostics

Only the veterinarian-neurologist can establish the reason of pathology – do not try to do it independently. The diagnosis epilepsy is made by results of a set of inspections and laboratory analyses, on the basis of your records from the magazine of observations and video filming.

Diagnostic methods

  1. Collecting anamnesis.
  2. Visual inspection of an animal, a palpation of the sites causing suspicion.
  3. Ultrasonography of abdominal organs.
  4. Puncture of cerebrospinal fluid.
  5. Computer Tomography (CT) or MRT.
  6. Cardiogram.
  7. Analysis of urine.
  8. Electroencephalography.
  9. X-ray analysis.
  10. Biochemical blood test.

An important role in diagnosis is played by the description of a picture of an attack: harbingers, duration, the nature of spasms at cats, exit time from a state. Having received results of all researches, the veterinarian makes the final diagnosis.

Prevention

In a case with congenital epilepsy, the only measure of prevention – creation of the safe dwelling for your animal.

Such pets need room contents without high ladders and pieces of furniture from which they can fall during an attack.

The street for sick cats – a dangerous and prohibited zone. Measures of prevention are generally calculated on symptomatic type of a disease.

of the Measure of prevention

  1. You carry out vaccination according to the schedule of inoculations from infectious diseases (plague, rage, etc.).
  2. Take care of that the pet could not fall from height. Do not let out a cat one on a balcony. You hold windows closed. Remove high furniture from the room of an animal.
  3. Create the friendly quiet atmosphere in the house.
  4. Provide a cat with regular physical activity. Play with the pet.
  5. You store chemicals, poisons, medicines in inaccessible places.
  6. You do not part poisonous houseplants.
  7. You monitor observance of temperature condition of a cat – overheating and overcooling are dangerous.
  8. All medicines, including biological additives and means from parasites, give on doctor's orders.
  9. Every three months make tests, survey internals of a cat.
  10. Avoid contact with the infected and vagrant animals.

Ideally – never leave the pet unguarded. Observance of these rules will reduce risk of developing of epilepsy at a cat.

Video

Sources:

https://icatcare.org/advice/cat-health/seizuresepilepsy-cats

https://www.wikihow.com/Help-a-Cat-with-Epileptic-Seizures

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4857998/

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