- Mar 4, 2020
- Nov 13, 2018
Views on wellbeing of animals changed eventually and continue to undergo changes today. In the different countries treat animals differently. How did views of wellbeing of animals in process of mankind change?
The most part of information on how there lived people during the prehistoric period, we receive during studying of burials. And more than once it was noted that animals sometimes received a burial ceremony together with owners. It is probable it means that animals were the value which people had no objection to take away with themselves in the following life.
Animals are also mentioned in ancient religions. And some religions, for example, the Buddhism, stand up for that they did not do to animals harm.Images of animals we find
also in ancient works of art. And though it does not supply to us with any information on how treated animals in everyday life, we can consider it as the testimony of importance of animals for people.
The separate mention is deserved by dogs – as those who are faithful companions of people throughout the millennia. According to archaeological data, dogs lived near people at least with the XIII millennium BC (Sablin, Hopachev, 2002), or perhaps earlier. At the same time the first people who could manufacture pottery appeared in 2800 - 1800 BC. That is the person became the partner of a dog before learned to burn pots!
In Ancient Greece different philosophers adhered to the different points of view in relation to animals. For example, Pythagoras considered, as animals, and people have soul which differs in nothing at representatives of different types. And Aristotle put animals below people and considered that in relation to them moral standards as they are beings unreasonable are not applicable.
At the same time Ashoka who created what it is possible to call the legal document first in the history on protection of the rights of animals was a governor of the empire мауриев, for example. There was it in III in BC
The western civilization throughout the most part of the history was under the influence of the Christian religion which placed the person on a pedestal of a masterpiece which is above all other creations and can use them at discretion.
The philosopher René Descartes considered that animals – no more than self-moving automatic machines without soul, so, the person can use them at discretion.
One more thinker, Thomas Aquinas, considered that animals – only property, however with the reservation: the one who does harm to an animal harms also the person.
And only in the 17th century there are first attempts to protect animals at the legislative level.
In 1635. The parliament of Ireland adopted the act directed to protection of horses and sheep against ill treatment.
In 1641. The legislative assembly of Massachusetts decided that nobody has the right for tyranny and cruelty in relation to any being who is used by the person.
The cruelty in relation to animals was opposed by the philosopher Immanuel Kant. He believed that the cruelty to animals results in cruelty in relation to people.
It is echoed by Jeremy (Jeremiah) Bentam, saying that animal are the feeling creations, and it has to define the attitude towards them. And it is unimportant whether they can think or talk.
And the creator of the theory of evolution Charles Darwin considered that differences between people and animals rather quantitative, but not qualitative.
And in 1824 British William Uilberfors, Richard Martin and Arthur Broom founded the first-ever Society of protection of animals against ill treatment. In 1840 the Queen Victoria took Society under the patronage, so the organization received the name Royal society of prevention of ill treatment of animal (RSPCA).
This organization which, by the way, was subjected in those days to condemnation from the Roman Catholic church became model for creation of similar Societies worldwide, including in Australia (1981), Scotland (1839) and the USA (1866).
The 20th century became in many respects rotary in the history of the attitude of the person towards animals.
Last century there was a set of the books devoted to the ethic attitude towards animals, including such well-known as "Release of animals" of Peter Singer (1975), Ruth Harrison's "Animals cars" (1964) and "In protection of the rights of animals" Toma Rigana (1983). It is possible to agree or not to agree with what there is written, but each fan of animals surely has to read these books.
At last, in the 20th century in Great Britain the concept of wellbeing of animals which received the name " Five freedoms " was developed and it is applied around the world.
Also started talking that important not only to prevent ill treatment to animals, but also to improve quality of life of those who willy-nilly appeared in a sphere of influence of the person. According to the concept "Life is worth it to live", the quality of life of "smaller brothers" is estimated on three categories:
As approach to wellbeing of animals in the future will change, depends on each of us. Necessary components for improvement of the situation of affairs in this question:
They will help to protect those who cannot protect themselves.