• Feb 11, 2019

About magnetoreceptors in 1960. However confidence arose a bit later when the receptors which are responsible for perception by animals of magnetic fields were for the first time found. Researchers drew a conclusion that this type of sensitivity is especially widespread in communities underground, the wandering and migrating animals.

Magnetic field

History of opening of magnetosom

Research of Scientists about Magnetoreception of Animals

Bacteria were the first organisms in which scientists found the receptors capable to catch magnetic field. Specific sensors as it appeared, are located on a surface of their membrane. Scientists called them magnetosom. By researchers it was noticed that microorganisms are capable to be guided on magnetic field of the earth.

Later existence of magnetoreceptors confirmed also observation of behavioural reactions of different types of animals and birds.

Further researches in the field of morphology and physiology of representatives of fauna of the world showed that the susceptibility to the field at different types of organisms is caused by different mechanisms. A part of representatives of wildlife including the person, apparently, perceive fluctuations by directly nervous cages. In the medical environment it is accepted to call this phenomenon meteosensitivity. It is shown by deterioration in health and disorder of vegetative regulation of functions of an organism.

However was found in some animal species the specific touch device intended for perception of magnetic fields of Earth.

What is magnetoreceptors

Researchers found a number of the structures having magnetic properties in an organism of some animals. They are located in the following anatomic educations:

  • hypothalamus;
  • fragments of tissue of trellised bone;
  • at some species special inclusions at an eye bottom are allocated.

Receptors at Animals

From the specified structures it was succeeded to allocate the specific particles which received subsequently the name magnetite. the sizes of 45 by 38 nanometers both full chemical and spatial uniformity at all studied species have These educations.

Under the influence of the changing magnetic field crystals of magnetite change the spatial orientation, interacting among themselves by means of fluctuations. It leads to change of the general magnetic field of the body containing inclusions from magnetite, and it begins to function as a magnetoreceptor.

As works the mechanism

Results of Researches

The mechanism catching magnetic fields helps at orientation to areas.

Arrangement of each separate crystal, tension of its magnetic field and the total field of inclusions of magnetite — all these parameters are formed in the course of ontogenesis depending on external magnetic field of this area in which the organism develops. Therefore, getting to an unfamiliar area, the animal feels change of magnetic field , feels discomfort that starts a chain of approximate, research and search behavioural reactions.

Researchers explained with this mechanism the facts of independent return home of animals (for example, a houming at cats).

Scientists describe this phenomenon as a hypothesis so far and continue to study it by means of experiments with attraction of cats.

Tests during which the cats who are taken out to the unfamiliar area on distance of 300 km by means of the plane began to move towards the house are carried already out, unmistakably finding the shortest way. the Same trend was observed also when placing a cat in a tangled labyrinth where it had no opportunity to be guided by means of sight, hearing and sense of smell. Cats unmistakably chose the corridor directed towards the house. Also the animals who are taken out from the home region in a condition of an anesthesia behaved.

a Series of experiments with animals revealed some regularities :

Examinees of a Cat

  • Incorrect decisions by search of the direction home it was accepted only a small amount of the studied cats. In all cases it were young inexperienced, individuals.
  • The quantity of mistakes in orientation of animals increased in process of removal from the house.
  • Mistakes began after removal on 12 km.
  • Cats in magnetic collars looked for a way in a labyrinth irregularly, an empirical way.

All these observations allow to make a hypothesis that perception of the field allows animals to be guided in the unfamiliar area and to unmistakably find the road to a house area.

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