- Nov 25, 2018
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We often compare animals among themselves and to us, people. We make the ratings of intelligence, we argue whether "dumb animals" are able to think and which of them is cleverer. Whether it makes sense?
Young a chimpanzee Yoyo faced a difficult task which it never had to solve before. Before it a narrow long tube at the bottom of which nut lies. And Yoyo adores nuts! And to understand as far as she wants to catch him, you can present something that you very much, directly intolerably want. Here young could tell the same to a chimpanzee about nut.
Yoyo tries to get desired delicacy, but before it there is a problem: the tube is screwed on a lattice, and still it too long and narrow that there the pad crept. The monkey has no tools which she could use. It cannot neither break a tube, nor separate it from a lattice and turn.
To understand, animals are how clever, just answer a question (without spotting in the text below): what would you do in this case? How would you get nut?
As you can see, Yoyo solved a problem almost instantly! She ran up to a drinking bowl, kept silent and poured out it in a tube. Nut emerged, and she right there joyfully devoured it.
Nobody taught a monkey to it. Somehow she guessed that it will work. And you would guess similar – only honestly?
Intelligence is what allows us and an animal to solve absolutely different problems, showing at the same time uncommon flexibility.
It is also ability to lose different versions of the decision in mind to choose that which will work – or to try different options and to find correct a trial and error method. And, of course, to use knowledge gained earlier to apply them in new conditions.
Most likely, those who watched dumb animals, will answer the first question in the affirmative. Also will be right. The scientists making experiments (and not only with monkeys and dolphins, but also, for example, with dogs), received definite answer: animals successfully use mental capacities to solve quite complex problems.
Earlier people considered that the intelligence is something that it is possible to measure by the general measure. It as the glass which either is full or is empty (or it is full half). But modern approach to intelligence considers a question in a different way.
Scientists came to a conclusion that the intelligence is something that it is impossible to measure by one measure. There is no one and only type of intelligence. Very much there is a lot of intelligence components (and we so far do not even know for certain, how many). There are such pieces as spatial thinking, memory, learning ability, ability to control the behavior and many other things.
There is no sense to speak about the one who is more intellectual and who less – different components of intelligence do not depend from each other. For example, you can have a remarkable memory, but at the same time you are capable to get lost in three pines. Some component of intelligence can be developed stronger, some – is weaker, and all this varies not only within some look, but also for each specific individual. Therefore now the question who is cleverer and who is sillier is not necessary, and so-called "cognitive profiles" where all known types of informative abilities and intelligence are considered are created.
Whether comparison of intelligence of animals is justified? It is much more interesting to reflect on how animals (and people) use the mental capacities for the solution of the most different tasks. In what their strong and weaknesses and how, for example, it can be used when training the same dogs?the answer to a question "who is cleverer than
A: dog or cat?" lies in the same plane, as the answer to a question "that is better: hammer or screw-driver?" They solve painfully different problems.
To understand what "cognitive profile" at our pet and how to use his strengths and to consider weak, it is necessary to watch how the animal solves intellectual problems and what tasks are given it the easiest and what cause insuperable difficulties.