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The question "what the person differs from an animal in" occupies many of us. And really, that in us such special what is not present in them? And whether there is in general it "something"? Scientists conducted researches to find the answer.
Catherine Pollard in 2003 participated in sequencing of a genome of a chimpanzee and in 2009 published work under the name "What Does Us by People?" chimpanzees for researches chose because today it is our closest relatives.
During the researches of a genome of a chimpanzee and the person it became clear that 99% of human genome and a chimpanzee are identical. But hardly someone will argue with the fact that we are not really similar even externally. What it in this 1% which changed for the last 6 million years what makes us different?
However, even this 1% contains a huge number of couples of nucleotides. So the result of comparison of human genome and a chimpanzee surprised not only the minimum quantitative difference.
The brain of the person differs from a brain of a monkey in the size and degree of complexity. However the basis of similar distinctions remained a riddle.
It is more surprising what during the research became clear: distinctions "are put" in not coding sequences. That is in those sites which do not code a squirrel. Earlier these pieces were scornfully called "garbage", or "useless DNA", considering that they play only a certain "fastening" role. But if this "garbage" distinguishes the person from a chimpanzee, so it is not just "garbage"?
Also it became clear that these "pieces" are near genes which are responsible for important features of our brain and provide the correct formation of its bark. That is, if to speak simply, this "useless" DNA – some kind of regulator which includes certain genes or strengthen their action.
If a gene did not join or was early switched off – the monkey turned out if the gene joined, and it was switched off not so early – already the person.
And in what part of a genome take place of change, but not their quantity matters. A secret is in quickly to include the necessary genes in the right place, and it will change functioning of an organism in general. And as a result of 1% of our genome affected the remained 99%. Fantasy?
But it is necessary to pay for everything. And these changes brought to others, not so positive. For example, they complicate fight against HIV therefore AIDS is characteristic only of the person, unlike other animals.
However, this list of differences of the person from animals not full. And researches in this area are not completed and promise a lot more new opening.