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only myths was not invented about wolves! The terrible animal who only also thinks, kind of to break off and eat all around, and the cast-iron discipline and fear of higher reigns in pack. However the reality as show researches, has nothing in common with these prejudices . Under what laws does the pack of wolves live?
On a photo: wolves. Photo: pixabay.com
People were afraid at all times and hated wolves. For example, at the time of the USSR the wolf was considered as "an undesirable look", nearly parasitic. Fought against it by the most barbaric methods, wishing to exterminate completely. But, despite it, wolves — the look having the biggest area of dwelling. And all thanks to their improbable intelligence and ability to cooperate.
Scientists who investigate wolves like deep respect for these predators. Also speak about them most often as about people, constantly drawing parallels with us (alas, not always in favor of a look the Homo sapiens).
The pack of wolves is the real family, in the true sense of the word. As a rule, it consists of three age groups:
Everyone undertakes that function which he can carry out better than others, and distribution of functions plays a key role in pack life.
And in wolf family the huge role is played by personal attachments between certain members of pack.
On a photo: pack of wolves. Photo: wikimedia.org
Members of pack within a year will rearrange. They can go groups and one by one, but it does not mean that the pack broke up. If you leave for work in the morning, same does not mean that you are not a part of the family any more? And wolves: they can leave on the affairs on quite long distances, and then return to other family members.
Howl - it is a way of communication of wolves. For example, when members of pack disperse, they howl to understand where there is each of them. By the way, to the moon wolves do not howl – they just raise the head, with the hung head it is impossible to howl.
Wolves are faithful husbands. Couple is formed for the rest of life, and the male takes active part in care of posterity and education of wolf cubs. Unfaithfulness at wolves never and under no circumstances happens.
On a photo: wolves. Photo: pxhere.com
And even if the wolf plays the predominating role in family, the female who has little cubs becomes quite aggressive and very exacting to the spouse. So the wolf tirelessly drags it food, and only after she is full, feeds wolf cubs and will begin to stock, he can sigh freely and at last eat itself and have a rest.
Wolf cubs are born in the spring and up to 4 months do not leave limits of so-called "center" — the center of the territory of pack. At this time they communicate only with parents and even practically do not see elder brothers and sisters who leave to live on the periphery of the site.
In the fall when pereyarok allow to the center again, they meet kids. And by winter all pack again sharply develops all territory subordinated to them. But the younger generation (wolf cubs till 1 year) behaves extremely circumspectly and carefully, children are frightened all new and unfamiliar.
As far as wolf cubs timid and careful, so teenagers (pereyarka) curious and even a little reckless. They are ready to stick the nose anywhere, everywhere rush the first. And if you saw in the forest of a wolf which stands and attentively examines you – most likely, this is the curious teenager learning the world.
In the spring when the new brood is born, one-year-old pereyarok drive away from the center on the periphery of the site where they keep youth groups and one by one.
However, the efficiency of their efforts is low. In general successful hunting of wolves makes about 30% of all cases, at the same time teenagers beg for food adult couple more often, than make a contribution to the common cause so they more likely not assistants, and a burden.
But each failure of a wolf – additional experience to the victim so teenagers, without wishing that, learn to be hoofed animals more circumspect and careful. Also drive them to live closer to the center – with adult wolves to boars, to elks and roes is quieter, than with unruly pereyarka.
Having matured, pereyarka often leave to look for couple and to start own family. However it happens that the young she-wolf, having found "husband", comes to give birth to wolf cubs to the parental center. And then, when former adult couple grows old and, for example, the she-wolf dies, the young couple takes the place of leaders. And an elderly wolf it is necessary to attain the age near young people as the grandfather.
But two adult females in pack meet exclusively seldom. If wolves males at the conflicts show aggression more, than try to use teeth, then if two females are linked – to be to a trouble. For this reason more often happens that in pack two adult wolves males, than two adult she-wolves.
Wolves touchingly care for cubs, and wolf cubs have in pack the status of inviolability. However, there is one nuance – if hunters find wolf cubs, adult wolves of newborn puppies do not protect: life of an adult wolf "is" more expensive.
However it does not mean that wolves are not capable of a feat for the sake of another. Altruism – piece which was thought up not by the person. Wolves are ready for a lot of things for the sake of any member of pack, including to battle and sacrifice themselves.
Professor, the researcher of wolves Yason Badridze at one of lectures said that the person thought up 10 commandments which he constantly breaks, but wolves in this sense differ from us – at them laws are held sacred. And if the aggression of one individual goes beyond norm, all community unites against it, and such individual will not find the partner, so, these genes will not be transferred to the next generations.
The wolf devotion is perfectly illustrated by one case.
Couple of wolves was exhausted with use of tags. They were surrounded, and here it became clear that there are no wolves in a salary …. And when in the wake of began "to read" that the surprising thing happened, became clear.
The male jumped over tags, but the female remained inside. The wolf returned to a salary, they "conferred", and he jumped again – but the she-wolf did not decide. Then the male gnawed through a rope, and tags fell to the ground at distance approximately of a half a meter from each other, but the female still did not venture to leave a salary. And the wolf took the end of a rope in teeth and dragged tags aside, having cleared broader way then both escaped.
It is possible if we find in ourselves wisdom to overcome ancient prejudices against tremendous, cleverest animals, they will surprise us still more than once.