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what other person if correctly we use social hints feels and intends to do by . For example, sometimes the direction of a look of the interlocutor can prompt that occurs in his head. And this ability as long time scientists thought, distinguishes people from other living beings. Whether distinguishes? Let's understand.
there Are known experiments with children. Psychologists hid a toy and prompted to children (a look or gesture) where it is. And children perfectly coped with a task (unlike anthropoids). And children did not need to be taught it – this ability is a part of "a basic complete set" and appears at the age of 14 – 18 months. Moreover, children show flexibility and "respond" even on those hints which were not seen earlier.
But whether really we are unique in this sense? Long time was considered that yes. Experiments with our immediate family monkeys who over and over again "failed" tests for "reading" gestures formed the basis for similar self-confidence. However people were mistaken.
The American scientist Brian Hare (the researcher, the evolutionary anthropologist and the founder of the center of studying of cognitive abilities of dogs) in the childhood watched Orio the black Labrador. As any Labrador, a dog adored chasing balls. And it liked to play with 2 tennis balls at the same time, one was insufficiently. And so far he pursued one ball, Brian threw the second, and, certainly, the dog did not know where the toy got to. When the dog brought the first ball, he attentively looked at the owner and began to bark. Demanding that gesture showed it where the second ball got to. Subsequently these children's memoirs became a basis for a serious research which results very much surprised scientists. It turned out that dogs perfectly understand people – not worse, than our own children.
Researchers took two opaque capacities which were hidden by an obstacle. Showed to a dog delicacy, and then placed it in one of capacities. Then the obstacle was removed. The dog understood that delicacy, but where exactly somewhere lies, she did not know.
On a photo: Brian Hare makes an experiment, trying to define how the dog understands the person
In the beginning dogs were not given any hints, allowing to make the independent choice. So scientists were convinced that dogs do not use sense of smell to find "production". Strangely enough (and it is really surprising), they really did not use it! Respectively, chances of success were 50 on 50 – dogs just guessed, guessing location of delicacy approximately in half of cases.
But when people used gestures to prompt to a dog the correct answer, the situation radically changed – dogs solved this problem with ease, going straight to the necessary capacity. Moreover, quite enough even not gesture, and the direction of a look of the person was it!
Then researchers assumed that the dog catches the movement of the person and is guided by it. The experiment was complicated: to dogs closed eyes, the person pointed to one of capacities while eyes of a dog were closed. That is, when it opened eyes, the person did not do the movement by a hand, and just pointed a finger at one of capacities. It did not confuse dogs at all – they still showed excellent results.
Thought up one more complication: the experimenter took a step towards the "wrong" capacity, pointing to correct. But dogs did not manage to be led and in this case.
And the experimenter not necessarily there was an owner of a dog. They equally well "read" people who were seen for the first time in life. That is communication between the owner and the pet here too not and.
On a photo: experiment, which purpose: to define whether the dog understands gestures of the person
Used not only gestures, and a neutral marker. For example, took a cube and put it on the necessary capacity (and marked capacity both at presence, and for lack of a dog). Animals did not bring and in this case. That is they showed enviable flexibility at the solution of these tasks.
Such tests were carried out by repeatedly different scientists – and all received identical results.
Similar abilities were noticed only at children earlier, but not at other animals. Probably, it makes dogs really special – our best friends.