- Feb 7, 2020
- Feb 7, 2020
about problems of behavior of dogs, about congenital and acquired, it is necessary to mention such thing as epigenetics.
A dog – very interesting object for genomic researches because she is more by the size, than the mouse, besides is more, than the mouse or a rat, is similar to the person. But nevertheless it is not the person, so it is possible to conduct lines and to carry out control crossings, and then to draw analogies to the person.
Sofya Baskina at the Pet's Behaviour - 2018 conference mentioned that today about 360 identical genetic diseases of a dog and the person are known, however every day there are results of new researches which prove that between us and our pets it is more of the general, than can seem at first sight.
The genome is huge – in it 2.5 billion couples of nucleotides. Therefore at its research perhaps there are a lot of mistakes. The genome is an encyclopedia of all your life where each gene is responsible for some protein. And each gene consists of many couples of nucleotides. Chains of DNA "are densely packed" into chromosomes.
Is genes which are necessary to us at present, and there are those which are not necessary to us right now. And they are kind of stored in "the preserved look" till the necessary moment to be shown under certain conditions.
The epigenetics defines what genes "are now read out" and influence, including, on behavior of dogs. Though, of course, the epigenetics concerns not only dogs.
The problem of obesity at people can be an example of "work" of epigenetics. When the person endures strong hunger, at it the certain genes connected with metabolism which purpose – to save up everything that gets to an organism, and not to die of hunger "wake up". These genes work at an extent of 2 - 3 generations. And if the next generations do not starve, these genes "fill up" again.
Such "filling-up" and "waking-up" genes are what it was very difficult to geneticists "to catch" and explain until they opened epigenetics.
The same concerns, for example, a stress at animals. If the dog endures very heavy stress, her organism to adapt to new conditions, begins to work differently, and these changes remain during life of 1 - 2 next generations. So if we investigate a behavioural problem which is way to cope with extremely stressiruyushchy situation, can turn out that this problem is inherited, but only in the closest generations.
All this can complicate maintaining a family tree if we speak about some problems of behavior connected with experience of a severe stress. Whether congenital it is a problem? Yes: the mechanism of how the organism will cope with a stress, already in an organism is put, but "sleeps" – until he was not "woken" by any events from the outside. However if two subsequent generations live in good conditions, the problem behavior will not be shown further.
It is important to know it when you choose a puppy and you study family trees of his parents. And competent and responsible manufacturers, knowing about epigenetics, can trace what experience is got by generations of dogs and as this experience affects their behavior.