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that dogs skillfully communicate with people, for example, perfectly our gestures "read" to and language of a body. It is already known that this ability appeared at dogs in domestication process . But social interaction is not just understanding of gestures, it something much bigger. The feeling is sometimes created that they read our mind.Photo: google.by
Scientists, having decided to investigate skills of social interaction of dogs, found out that these animal are not less talented , than our children.
But as received more and more answers, there were new and new questions. How do dogs apply intelligence in communication with people? Whether everything dogs are capable of the considered acts? Whether they know that the person knows and what is unknown? How they are guided by areas? Whether they are capable to find the fastest solution? Whether they understand relationships of cause and effect? Whether they understand symbols? And so on, and so forth.
Brian Hare, the researcher from Duke University, made a number of experiments with an own Labrador. The person went and hid delicacy in one of three baskets – and the dog was in the same room and could see everything, and the owner in the room was not. Then the room was entered by the owner and within 30 seconds observed whether the dog where delicacy is hidden will show. The Labrador perfectly coped with a task! And here other dog participating in an experiment never showed where what lies – just sat, and all. That is here specific features of a dog are important.
Interaction of dogs with the person was investigated also by Adam Mikloshi from the university of Budapest. He found out that the majority of dogs seek for purposeful communication with the person. And that for these animals also very important that, you see them or not is so-called "effect of audience".
And still it became clear that dogs not just understand words or passively perceive information, but also are capable to use us as the tool for achievement of the purposes.Photo: google.by
Our children, as a rule, incredibly quickly learn new words. For example, children up to 8 years are capable to remember 12 new words a day. The six-year-old child knows about 10,000 words, and the pupil of high school – about 50,000 (Golovin, 2014). But that it is the most interesting – to storing of new words of insufficiently only one memory – it is necessary still to be able to draw conclusions. Fast assimilation is impossible without understanding of that what needs to label a concrete object, and without repeated repetitions.
So, children are capable to understand and remember what word is associated with an object, for 1 – 2 time. And it is even optional to you to teach specially the child – to acquaint him with this word enough, for example, in a game or in household communication, to look regarding, calling it, or to otherwise pay attention to it.
And still children are capable to apply an exception method, that is to come to a conclusion that if you call a new word, then it belongs to earlier unknown subject among already known, even without additional explanations of you.
Rico was the first dog who could prove that these animals have such abilities too.
Results very much surprised scientists. The matter is that the set of experiments on training in the words of monkeys was in the seventies made. Monkeys can learn hundreds of words, but there were never proofs that they can quickly grab names of new objects without additional training. And dogs can do it!
In the beginning the hostess told how she trained Rico in new words. She spread different objects which names the dog already knew, for example, many balls of different flowers and the sizes, and Rico knew that it, let us assume, – a pink ball or an orange ball. And then the hostess said: "Bring a yellow ball!" So, Rico knew names of all other balls, and there was one which name she did not know - it is and there was a yellow ball. And without additional instructions Rico brought it.
In fact, just the same conclusions are done also by children.
The experiment of Juliane Kaminski consisted in the following. First of all it checked whether really Rico understands 200 words. Offered a dog 20 sets of 10 toys, and she actually knew the words designating them everything.
And then made an experiment which inexpressibly surprised all. It was the ability test to learn the new words designating objects which the dog never saw.
In the room put ten toys, eight of which Rico knew, and never saw two earlier. To be convinced that the dog will not seize the first a new toy just because it new, in the beginning two already known asked to bring it. And when she successfully coped with a task, by her called a new word. And Rico went to the room, took one of two toys unknown to it and brought it.
Moreover, the experiment was repeated in 10 minutes, and then 4 weeks later. And Rico in both cases perfectly remembered the name of this new toy. That is was enough once that she learned and remembered a new word.
One more dog, Cheyzer, learned thus more than 1000 words. Its owner wrote to John Pilley the book about how it managed to train a dog so. And the owner did not choose the most capable puppy – it took the first comer. That is it not something outstanding, but that, probably, to quite well many dogs.
Yet there is no confirmation that some other animals, except dogs, are capable to acquire new words thus.
The experiment with Rico had continuation. Instead of the name of a toy showed to a dog the picture with its image or the reduced copy of a subject which it needed to bring from the neighboring room. And it was a new task – the hostess did not teach it to it.
For example, showed to Rico a tiny rabbit or the picture with the image of a toy rabbit, and it had to bring a toy rabbit, etc.
Amazingly, but Rico and also two more dogs who participated in the research Julian Kamensky perfectly understood that from them is required. Yes, someone coped better, someone is worse, sometimes there were mistakes, but in general they understood a task.
Is surprising, people long time considered that understanding of symbols is an important component of language and that animals are not capable of it.
One more experiment was made by Adam Mikloshi. The dog was faced by two turned cups. The researcher showed that under one cup there is no delicacy, and looked whether the dog will be able to draw a conclusion that the tidbit is hidden under the second cup. Experimental quite successfully coped with a task.
One more experiment was directed to finding out whether dogs understand that you can see and that – no. You ask a dog to bring a ball, but it is behind an opaque screen, and you do not see, where exactly. And other ball is behind a transparent screen so you can see it. And while you can see only one ball, the dog sees both. How you think what ball she will choose if you ask it to bring?
It became clear that the dog in most cases brings that ball which is seen by both of you!
It is interesting that when you can see both balls, the dog chooses this or that ball in a random way, approximately in half of cases everyone.
That is the dog comes to a conclusion that if you ask to bring a ball, it has to be that ball which you see.
Filip – a dog assistant was one more participant of experiments of Adam Mikloshi. The purpose was to find out whether it is possible to train Filip in flexibility in the solution of tasks which can arise before it in the course of work. And instead of classical training in Filip suggested to repeat after the person of action for which you from it wait. It is a so-called training of "Do as I do" ("Do as I"). That is after preliminary preparation you show to a dog of action which it did not carry out earlier, and the dog repeats after you.
For example, you take a bottle with water and bring it from one room to another, then say "Do as I" — and the dog has to repeat your actions.
The result surpassed all expectations. And since then the team of the Hungarian scientists prepared dozens of dogs by this technique.
Unless it is not amazing?
For the last 10 years we learned a lot of new about dogs. And how many opening still wait for us ahead?Photo: google.by