- Jan 24, 2020
- Jan 23, 2020
For certain almost all heard about Dolly the sheep. However she was not either the first, nor last animal who was cloned. Who was comprehended by a similar fate and how fate of the cloned animals was?
Cloning is called creation of an organism with the set of genes identical initial. However the new gene combination can be created only on condition of sexual reproduction. Means, any other ways of reproduction — too, in fact, cloning. And if the amoeba or a bacterium share, they clone themselves. That is the cloning is widespread in the nature.
However the artificial cloning was possible only in 1962. And the frog fell the first victim of science. This experiment laid the foundation for a discussion about opportunities of cloning of the person. Alas, the fate of a frog remained the unknown.
The mouse Masha cloned by Levon Chaylakhyan, the Soviet scientist became the following experimental. Masha's fate is also covered with an uncertainty gloom. However, the century of mice is already short …
Dolley was born in 1996 and the emergence created a furor. The matter is that it was the first cloning from cages of an adult organism. The donor sheep was not alive by then any more, the cage was frozen. Then the kernel containing genetic set was transferred to the ovum taken from other sheep (previously removed genetic material from it) and "implanted" to the third sheep — substitute mother.
Dolly the sheep did not guess the special status. She considered herself an ordinary sheep and brought 6 lambs into world. However died early — in 7 years (average life expectancy of sheep — about 10 years). At it arthritis, and then — a heavy infection developed in the beginning, and the sheep was lulled.
However in 2007 from Dolley's cells cloned 4 other sheep.
The experiment with Dolley laid the foundation for a set of experiments on cloning of the most different animals.On a photo: the cloned Dolly the sheep and the British scientist Jan Vilmouth
Soon the cloning became destiny of pets. In December, 2001 the first cat was cloned. She was called by Tits (from English of CC — Clone Cat). She was brought into world in the University of Texas and became a world celebrity.
The next 10 years nothing was known of the fate of the Tit, but in 2012 it became clear that she is alive, perfectly feels and conducts quite safe life. Tits owned the whole mansion, got the spouse by the name of Smouki and kittens.
Scientists conducted numerous researches, and results showed that Tits — quite normal cat. Though the public which came that to visit it was complex to believe in it.
By the way, the cat by the name of the Rainbow of a three-colored color became the donor of a cage for the Tit, however the Tit did not inherit this dress — it turned out two-color. Then opinion that clones completely copy the donor — no more than the myth.on a photo: The cloned cat of the Tit
Snappi (the Afghan borzoi) was born in April, 2005. He became result of long-term work of South Korean scientists. For creation of this clone implanted to 123 dogs about 1000 embryos. Successful was only one attempt. The cage was taken from an ear of a dog by the name of Tye. Substitute mother became a labrador retriever.
It is known that in 2008 Snappi became the proud father of 10 puppies. However its future is covered with a veil of secrecy.On a photo: The cloned Snappi's dog with the children.
In 2007 in South Korea cloned 7 search dogs — Labradors retrievers. All of them received one nickname — Toppi. In 2009 the cloned dogs got to work at customs and conducted life of ordinary guard dogs.
Scientists were not limited to mice, cats and dogs habitual to us.
Americans tried to clone the Indian bison (gaur), however Noah's clone died in 2 days after the birth — intestinal frustration became the reason.
In 2001 in Italy the European mouflon (a wild ram) was cloned. As its fate was, it is unknown.
In 2000 the first primacy — Tetr's macaque Rhesus factor was cloned. Used 4 embryos, however she managed to survive only. However, its future is also not known.
But on animals scientists do not want to stop. In South Korea and in the USA even declared successful experiments on cloning of the person, however confirmation was not received. However, in many countries the law forbidding carrying out similar experiments is adopted.